• Binary Option Payoff Formula Example
• Understanding the Binomial Option Pricing Model
• Binomial Option Pricing Model Definition
• Option Pricing Basics - New York University
• The Quintessential Option Pricing Formula
• Binary option pricing - Breaking Down Finance
• Binary Option - TU Wien
• On Black Scholes Equation, Black Scholes Formula and ...
• A STUDY ON THE PRICING OF DIGITAL CALL OPTIONS
##### No gods, no kings, only NOPE - or divining the future with options flows. [Part 3: Hedge Winding, Unwinding, and the NOPE]

Hello friends!
We're on the last post of this series ("A Gentle Introduction to NOPE"), where we get to use all the Big Boy Concepts (TM) we've discussed in the prior posts and put them all together. Some words before we begin:
1. This post will be massively theoretical, in the sense that my own speculation and inferences will be largely peppered throughout the post. Are those speculations right? I think so, or I wouldn't be posting it, but they could also be incorrect.
2. I will briefly touch on using the NOPE this slide, but I will make a secondary post with much more interesting data and trends I've observed. This is primarily for explaining what NOPE is and why it potentially works, and what it potentially measures.
My advice before reading this is to glance at my prior posts, and either read those fully or at least make sure you understand the tl;drs:
Depending on popular demand, I will also make a last-last post called FAQ, where I'll tabulate interesting questions you guys ask me in the comments!
---
So a brief recap before we begin.
Market Maker ("Mr. MM"): An individual or firm who makes money off the exchange fees and bid-ask spread for an asset, while usually trying to stay neutral about the direction the asset moves.
Delta-gamma hedging: The process Mr. MM uses to stay neutral when selling you shitty OTM options, by buying/selling shares (usually) of the underlying as the price moves.
Law of Surprise [Lily-ism]: Effectively, the expected profit of an options trade is zero for both the seller and the buyer.
Random Walk: A special case of a deeper probability probability called a martingale, which basically models stocks or similar phenomena randomly moving every step they take (for stocks, roughly every millisecond). This is one of the most popular views of how stock prices move, especially on short timescales.
Future Expected Payoff Function [Lily-ism]: This is some hidden function that every market participant has about an asset, which more or less models all the possible future probabilities/values of the assets to arrive at a "fair market price". This is a more generalized case of a pricing model like Black-Scholes, or DCF.
Counter-party: The opposite side of your trade (if you sell an option, they buy it; if you buy an option, they sell it).
Price decoherence ]Lily-ism]: A more generalized notion of IV Crush, price decoherence happens when instead of the FEPF changing gradually over time (price formation), the FEPF rapidly changes, due usually to new information being added to the system (e.g. Vermin Supreme winning the 2020 election).
---
One of the most popular gambling events for option traders to play is earnings announcements, and I do owe the concept of NOPE to hypothesizing specifically about the behavior of stock prices at earnings. Much like a black hole in quantum mechanics, most conventional theories about how price should work rapidly break down briefly before, during, and after ER, and generally experienced traders tend to shy away from playing earnings, given their similar unpredictability.
Before we start: what is NOPE? NOPE is a funny backronym from Net Options Pricing Effect, which in its most basic sense, measures the impact option delta has on the underlying price, as compared to share price. When I first started investigating NOPE, I called it OPE (options pricing effect), but NOPE sounds funnier.
The formula for it is dead simple, but I also have no idea how to do LaTeX on reddit, so this is the best I have:

https://preview.redd.it/ais37icfkwt51.png?width=826&format=png&auto=webp&s=3feb6960f15a336fa678e945d93b399a8e59bb49
Since I've already encountered this, put delta in this case is the absolute value (50 delta) to represent a put. If you represent put delta as a negative (the conventional way), do not subtract it; add it.
To keep this simple for the non-mathematically minded: the NOPE today is equal to the weighted sum (weighted by volume) of the delta of every call minus the delta of every put for all options chains extending from today to infinity. Finally, we then divide that number by the # of shares traded today in the market session (ignoring pre-market and post-market, since options cannot trade during those times).
Effectively, NOPE is a rough and dirty way to approximate the impact of delta-gamma hedging as a function of share volume, with us hand-waving the following factors:
1. To keep calculations simple, we assume that all counter-parties are hedged. This is obviously not true, especially for idiots who believe theta ganging is safe, but holds largely true especially for highly liquid tickers, or tickers will designated market makers (e.g. any ticker in the NASDAQ, for instance).
2. We assume that all hedging takes place via shares. For SPY and other products tracking the S&P, for instance, market makers can actually hedge via futures or other options. This has the benefit for large positions of not moving the underlying price, but still makes up a fairly small amount of hedges compared to shares.

# Winding and Unwinding

I briefly touched on this in a past post, but two properties of NOPE seem to apply well to EER-like behavior (aka any binary catalyst event):
1. NOPE measures sentiment - In general, the options market is seen as better informed than share traders (e.g. insiders trade via options, because of leverage + easier to mask positions). Therefore, a heavy call/put skew is usually seen as a bullish sign, while the reverse is also true.
2. NOPE measures system stability
I'm not going to one-sentence explain #2, because why say in one sentence what I can write 1000 words on. In short, NOPE intends to measure sensitivity of the system (the ticker) to disruption. This makes sense, when you view it in the context of delta-gamma hedging. When we assume all counter-parties are hedged, this means an absolutely massive amount of shares get sold/purchased when the underlying price moves. This is because of the following:
a) Assume I, Mr. MM sell 1000 call options for NKLA 25C 10/23 and 300 put options for NKLA 15p 10/23. I'm just going to make up deltas because it's too much effort to calculate them - 30 delta call, 20 delta put.
This implies Mr. MM needs the following to delta hedge: (1000 call options * 30 shares to buy for each) [to balance out writing calls) - (300 put options * 20 shares to sell for each) = 24,000 net shares Mr. MM needs to acquire to balance out his deltas/be fully neutral.
b) This works well when NKLA is at \$20. But what about when it hits \$19 (because it only can go down, just like their trucks). Thanks to gamma, now we have to recompute the deltas, because they've changed for both the calls (they went down) and for the puts (they went up).
Let's say to keep it simple that now my calls are 20 delta, and my puts are 30 delta. From the 24,000 net shares, Mr. MM has to now have:
(1000 call options * 20 shares to have for each) - (300 put options * 30 shares to sell for each) = 11,000 shares.
Therefore, with a \$1 shift in price, now to hedge and be indifferent to direction, Mr. MM has to go from 24,000 shares to 11,000 shares, meaning he has to sell 13,000 shares ASAP, or take on increased risk. Now, you might be saying, "13,000 shares seems small. How would this disrupt the system?"
(This process, by the way, is called hedge unwinding)
It won't, in this example. But across thousands of MMs and millions of contracts, this can - especially in highly optioned tickers - make up a substantial fraction of the net flow of shares per day. And as we know from our desk example, the buying or selling of shares directly changes the price of the stock itself.
This, by the way, is why the NOPE formula takes the shape it does. Some astute readers might notice it looks similar to GEX, which is not a coincidence. GEX however replaces daily volume with open interest, and measures gamma over delta, which I did not find good statistical evidence to support, especially for earnings.
So, with our example above, why does NOPE measure system stability? We can assume for argument's sake that if someone buys a share of NKLA, they're fine with moderate price swings (+- \$20 since it's NKLA, obviously), and in it for the long/medium haul. And in most cases this is fine - we can own stock and not worry about minor swings in price. But market makers can't* (they can, but it exposes them to risk), because of how delta works. In fact, for most institutional market makers, they have clearly defined delta limits by end of day, and even small price changes require them to rebalance their hedges.
This over the whole market adds up to a lot shares moving, just to balance out your stupid Robinhood YOLOs. While there are some tricks (dark pools, block trades) to not impact the price of the underlying, the reality is that the more options contracts there are on a ticker, the more outsized influence it will have on the ticker's price. This can technically be exactly balanced, if option put delta is equal to option call delta, but never actually ends up being the case. And unlike shares traded, the shares representing the options are more unstable, meaning they will be sold/bought in response to small price shifts. And will end up magnifying those price shifts, accordingly.

# NOPE and Earnings

So we have a new shiny indicator, NOPE. What does it actually mean and do?
There's much literature going back to the 1980s that options markets do have some level of predictiveness towards earnings, which makes sense intuitively. Unlike shares markets, where you can continue to hold your share even if it dips 5%, in options you get access to expanded opportunity to make riches... and losses. An options trader betting on earnings is making a risky and therefore informed bet that he or she knows the outcome, versus a share trader who might be comfortable bagholding in the worst case scenario.
As I've mentioned largely in comments on my prior posts, earnings is a special case because, unlike popular misconceptions, stocks do not go up and down solely due to analyst expectations being meet, beat, or missed. In fact, stock prices move according to the consensus market expectation, which is a function of all the participants' FEPF on that ticker. This is why the price moves so dramatically - even if a stock beats, it might not beat enough to justify the high price tag (FSLY); even if a stock misses, it might have spectacular guidance or maybe the market just was assuming it would go bankrupt instead.
To look at the impact of NOPE and why it may play a role in post-earnings-announcement immediate price moves, let's review the following cases:
1. Stock Meets/Exceeds Market Expectations (aka price goes up) - In the general case, we would anticipate post-ER market participants value the stock at a higher price, pushing it up rapidly. If there's a high absolute value of NOPE on said ticker, this should end up magnifying the positive move since:
a) If NOPE is high negative - This means a ton of put buying, which means a lot of those puts are now worthless (due to price decoherence). This means that to stay delta neutral, market makers need to close out their sold/shorted shares, buying them, and pushing the stock price up.
b) If NOPE is high positive - This means a ton of call buying, which means a lot of puts are now worthless (see a) but also a lot of calls are now worth more. This means that to stay delta neutral, market makers need to close out their sold/shorted shares AND also buy more shares to cover their calls, pushing the stock price up.
2) Stock Meets/Misses Market Expectations (aka price goes down) - Inversely to what I mentioned above, this should push to the stock price down, fairly immediately. If there's a high absolute value of NOPE on said ticker, this should end up magnifying the negative move since:
a) If NOPE is high negative - This means a ton of put buying, which means a lot of those puts are now worth more, and a lot of calls are now worth less/worth less (due to price decoherence). This means that to stay delta neutral, market makers need to sell/short more shares, pushing the stock price down.
b) If NOPE is high positive - This means a ton of call buying, which means a lot of calls are now worthless (see a) but also a lot of puts are now worth more. This means that to stay delta neutral, market makers need to sell even more shares to keep their calls and puts neutral, pushing the stock price down.
---
Based on the above two cases, it should be a bit more clear why NOPE is a measure of sensitivity to system perturbation. While we previously discussed it in the context of magnifying directional move, the truth is it also provides a directional bias to our "random" walk. This is because given a price move in the direction predicted by NOPE, we expect it to be magnified, especially in situations of price decoherence. If a stock price goes up right after an ER report drops, even based on one participant deciding to value the stock higher, this provides a runaway reaction which boosts the stock price (due to hedging factors as well as other participants' behavior) and inures it to drops.

I'm going to gloss over this section because this is more statistical methods than anything interesting. In general, if you have enough data, I recommend using NOPE_MAD over NOPE. While NOPE in theory represents a "real" quantity (net option delta over net share delta), NOPE_MAD (the median absolute deviation of NOPE) does not. NOPE_MAD simply answecompare the following:
1. How exceptional is today's NOPE versus historic baseline (30 days prior)?
2. How do I compare two tickers' NOPEs effectively (since some tickers, like TSLA, have a baseline positive NOPE, because Elon memes)? In the initial stages, we used just a straight numerical threshold (let's say NOPE >= 20), but that quickly broke down. NOPE_MAD aims to detect anomalies, because anomalies in general give you tendies.
I might add the formula later in Mathenese, but simply put, to find NOPE_MAD you do the following:
1. Calculate today's NOPE score (this can be done end of day or intraday, with the true value being EOD of course)
2. Calculate the end of day NOPE scores on the ticker for the previous 30 trading days
3. Compute the median of the previous 30 trading days' NOPEs
4. From the median, find the 30 days' median absolute deviation (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Median_absolute_deviation)
5. Find today's deviation as compared to the MAD calculated by: [(today's NOPE) - (median NOPE of last 30 days)] / (median absolute deviation of last 30 days)
This is usually reported as sigma (σ), and has a few interesting properties:
1. The mean of NOPE_MAD for any ticker is almost exactly 0.
2. [Lily's Speculation's Speculation] NOPE_MAD acts like a spring, and has a tendency to reverse direction as a function of its magnitude. No proof on this yet, but exploring it!

# Using the NOPE to predict ER

So the last section was a lot of words and theory, and a lot of what I'm mentioning here is empirically derived (aka I've tested it out, versus just blabbered).
In general, the following holds true:
1. 3 sigma NOPE_MAD tends to be "the threshold": For very low NOPE_MAD magnitudes (+- 1 sigma), it's effectively just noise, and directionality prediction is low, if not non-existent. It's not exactly like 3 sigma is a play and 2.9 sigma is not a play; NOPE_MAD accuracy increases as NOPE_MAD magnitude (either positive or negative) increases.
2. NOPE_MAD is only useful on highly optioned tickers: In general, I introduce another parameter for sifting through "candidate" ERs to play: option volume * 100/share volume. When this ends up over let's say 0.4, NOPE_MAD provides a fairly good window into predicting earnings behavior.
3. NOPE_MAD only predicts during the after-market/pre-market session: I also have no idea if this is true, but my hunch is that next day behavior is mostly random and driven by market movement versus earnings behavior. NOPE_MAD for now only predicts direction of price movements right between the release of the ER report (AH or PM) and the ending of that market session. This is why in general I recommend playing shares, not options for ER (since you can sell during the AH/PM).
4. NOPE_MAD only predicts direction of price movement: This isn't exactly true, but it's all I feel comfortable stating given the data I have. On observation of ~2700 data points of ER-ticker events since Mar 2019 (SPY 500), I only so far feel comfortable predicting whether stock price goes up (>0 percent difference) or down (<0 price difference). This is +1 for why I usually play with shares.
Some statistics:
#0) As a baseline/null hypothesis, after ER on the SPY500 since Mar 2019, 50-51% price movements in the AH/PM are positive (>0) and ~46-47% are negative (<0).
#1) For NOPE_MAD >= +3 sigma, roughly 68% of price movements are positive after earnings.
#2) For NOPE_MAD <= -3 sigma, roughly 29% of price movements are positive after earnings.
#3) When using a logistic model of only data including NOPE_MAD >= +3 sigma or NOPE_MAD <= -3 sigma, and option/share vol >= 0.4 (around 25% of all ERs observed), I was able to achieve 78% predictive accuracy on direction.

Like all models, NOPE is wrong, but perhaps useful. It's also fairly new (I started working on it around early August 2020), and in fact, my initial hypothesis was exactly incorrect (I thought the opposite would happen, actually). Similarly, as commenters have pointed out, the timeline of data I'm using is fairly compressed (since Mar 2019), and trends and models do change. In fact, I've noticed significantly lower accuracy since the coronavirus recession (when I measured it in early September), but I attribute this mostly to a smaller date range, more market volatility, and honestly, dumber option traders (~65% accuracy versus nearly 80%).
My advice so far if you do play ER with the NOPE method is to use it as following:
1. Buy/short shares approximately right when the market closes before ER. Ideally even buying it right before the earnings report drops in the AH session is not a bad idea if you can.
2. Sell/buy to close said shares at the first sign of major weakness (e.g. if the NOPE predicted outcome is incorrect).
3. Sell/buy to close shares even if it is correct ideally before conference call, or by the end of the after-market/pre-market session.
4. Only play tickers with high NOPE as well as high option/share vol.
---
In my next post, which may be in a few days, I'll talk about potential use cases for SPY and intraday trends, but I wanted to make sure this wasn't like 7000 words by itself.
Cheers.
- Lily

## Game Information

Game Title: Wasteland 3
Platforms:
• PlayStation 4 (Aug 28, 2020)
• PC (Aug 28, 2020)
• Xbox One (Aug 28, 2020)
Trailers:
Developer: inXile Entertainment
Publisher: Deep Silver
Review Aggregator:
OpenCritic - 84 average - 97% recommended - 39 reviews

## Critic Reviews

33bits - Juanma F. Padilla - Spanish - 95 / 100
After the excellent Wasteland 2, we were excited to get our hands on the new installment, and we can say without fear that it has met expectations. Wasteland 3 is a sign of the love that InXile has for his work and Brian Fargo for the genre that has created a name for him. If you are a lover of the saga or the genre, do not hesitate to enjoy it.
ACG - Jeremy Penter - Buy

## Video Review - Quote not available

Attack of the Fanboy - Diego Perez - 4.5 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 is one of the best RPGs I've played in years, and it's one you absolutely should not skip.
CGMagazine - Lane Martin - 9 / 10
Wasteland 3 is a lovely return to the post nuclear apocalypse with fun gameplay and interesting choices at its forefront, though at times it can be a bit clumsy in its implementation.
COGconnected - Tony Bae - 90 / 100
Wasteland 3 doesn’t pull any punches with its subject matter in sexuality, violence, and language. But if you are fine with that, I would highly recommend you give Wasteland 3 a shot, especially if you were (or still are) a Fallout fan.
Cerealkillerz - Julian Bieder - German - 8.8 / 10
On Paper Wasteland 3 sounds like the perfect RPG-Dream but the execution leaves much to be desired. Bugs, Glitches and graphics that doesn't really represent a game that releases and the end of this console generation are a bit of a letdown. Everything else from the great story, entertaining NPCs, solid battle system, clever leveldesign over to the love for details is amazing, besides some flaws that should soon be fixed, as inXile and Brian Fargo promise. Everyone that wasn't happy with the latest Fallout Games will surely love Wasteland 3.
Chicas Gamers - Adrián de Francisco - Spanish - Unscored
Wasteland 3 is a old-school role-playing game, with a compelling story, a combat system that promises but is not groundbreaking and some funny moments and black mood, which always remind us that we are in a post apocalyptic world, but with a smile. Don't forget the powerful character editor, rhythm voices, and the beautiful scenery that puts you in that atmosphere of cold and snowy Colorado.
Cram-Gaming - Robert Cram - 8.5 / 10
Wasteland 3 can be a bit of slog if you're gunning for marathon gaming sessions with it at the helm. Combat, whilst exciting initially can fall into the traps of repetition. A little more variety could have negated some of the repeated player actions. That said, the story is compelling and the characters an interesting assortment of misfit survivors, although perhaps fitting post-apocalyptic stereotypes. It's a fun, easy to play game overall though that should well-please fans of the series and keep players entertained for quite some time with its high replay-value. However, aside from some bugs here and there, the impressive amount of voice-work on offer, the character building is the best part of the experience where you can really nurture your ranger squad in this snowy post-apocalyptic world.
Digital Trends - Tom Caswell - 4 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 is a rewarding game that offers unprecedented choice and is a great jumping on point for new players.
DualShockers - Kris Cornelisse - 9 / 10
Improving on its predecessor in almost every way, Wasteland 3 is one of the best and most reactive RPGs I've played in a long time.
EGM - Mollie L Patterson - Unscored
At least in my time with it, Wasteland 3 has been a fascinating experience. I’ve come to appreciate its depth of gameplay, character, building, and exploration, even if some of its pieces and parts still feel very foreign to me.
Entertainium - Eduardo Rebouças - Unscored
I will be even happier with Wasteland 3 once it’s patched and most of the bugs that bit me end up getting squashed. Even in its current state I’m having a grand ol’ time bringing some justice to the cold depths where no Ranger has dared to before. But for as much of a blast as I’m having out northeast in the cold, I hope I can make it back to sunny Arizona in time to save my fellow lawmen!
Eurogamer - Wesley Yin-Poole - Recommended
inXile's old-school RPG is the Fallout game we've been craving.
Fextralife - Castielle - 8.3 / 10
Wasteland 3 is a throwback to the old School RPGs of yesteryear, while providing a new combat experience and a bigger world. Players that liked previous Fallout Games, or games like Wasteland 2 or Baldur's Gate will feel right at home with this title, and will have the opportunity to try X-Com like combat. For the amount of content provided, 60 USD is a very good price, and fans of the genre should get more than their money's worth.
GAMES.CH - Nedžad Hurabašić - German - 83 / 100
Wasteland 3 is absolutely worth the money - the RPG brings dozens of hours of fun gameplay to the table. A must-buy for roleplayers.
Game Revolution - Jason Faulkner - 4 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 is a marvel of a game, especially from a small studio like inExile. It’s not without its flaws, but the excellent writing and enthralling world overshadow those.
GameSkinny - Daniel Hollis - 9 / 10 stars
Wasteland 3 invokes feelings of classic RPGs such as Fallout and manages to nail the feel and tone perfectly in a modernized setting.
GameWatcher - Marcello Perricone - 8.5 / 10
A fantastic RPG that superbly mixes player choice and great combat to something bigger than the sum of its parts.
GamesRadar+ - Andrew King - 4 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 doesn't bring much new to the table, both as a CRPG and as a piece of post-apocalyptic fiction. But, it's a terrifically executed role-playing game that rewards player investment from beginning to end.
GamingBolt - Ravi Sinha - 9 / 10
Wasteland 3 is a heady crescendo of post-apocalyptic story-telling. Its combat is compelling and fun while its characters and overall plot are engrossing, even when it goes to some dark places. A must-play for tactical RPG fans.
Gert Lush Gaming - Jim Smale - 9 / 10
Wasteland 3 is the defacto strategy experience and one that every gamer owes themself the pleasure of playing.
God is a Geek - Mick Fraser - 9.5 / 10
Wasteland 3 is a huge undertaking, marrying deep, choice-driven role play with fast-paced tactical combat and vast areas to explore.
IGN Spain - Álex Pareja - Spanish - 8 / 10
Wasteland 3 knows how to open to new players keeping the old school essence. It's not a revolution on the genre or in the post apocaliptic proposal, but it won't matter to the franchise lovers.
Niche Gamer - Cwb - 3.5 / 10
We’ll update this review if the game is fixed, and the issues outlined are fixed or at least addressed; and then I’ll pick it back up. As it stands now, I’ll be playing something else that isn’t as apt to crash. Buyer beware.
PC Gamer - Jody Macgregor - 84 / 100
A wilfully strange setting explored through a predictable but enjoyable old school RPG thats been streamlined just enough.
PC Invasion - Jason Rodriguez - 8.5 / 10
There are a few misgivings related to Wasteland 3's technical aspects, mechanics, and overall challenge. However, its cast of characters (both old and new), the switch to a traditional turn-based combat system, and branching paths filled with decisions and dire consequences make for a superb journey with the Desert Rangers.
PCGamesN - Gina Lees - 9 / 10
Lurid characters, a deep RPG system, and captivating combat set in an unhinged apocalypse - inXile Entertainment's latest shouldn't be missed.
Player2.net.au - Matt Hewson - A or higher
With a focus on freedom of choice that is second-to-none, Wasteland 3 has set the benchmark for CRPG narratives, all the while being supported by wonderfully engaging gameplay and roleplaying mechanics.
PowerUp! - Leo Stevenson - 9.7 / 10
If you’re an RPG fan, a Fallout fan or even just a videogame fan, do yourself a favour and play one of this year’s very best games; Wasteland 3.
Saving Content - Scott Ellison II - 5 / 5 stars
It took me a while to realize how much these interactions, whether it be the interpersonal conversation or combat encounters themselves, stuck with me. Wasteland 3 has rules, but they only exist for you to bend them. With limitless character creation combinations, branching dialogue choices that affect what quests you do or don’t experience, and multiple endings, Wasteland 3 is an expanse of content and opportunity. The change in locale does wonders, no longer relying on a tired post-apocalyptic biome. Wasteland 3 has a wonderful backdrop in Colorado’s frozen wastes, making it the perfect place to spend a nuclear winter.
Screen Rant - Christopher Teuton - 4 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 takes players to a new location and presents them with equally unfamiliar challenges, yet still perfectly demonstrates all of the reasons why this series has had die-hard fans for over three decades, and is absolutely worth playing for anyone looking for their next post-apocalyptic fix.
Shacknews - Josh Hawkins - 9 / 10
If you’re a big fan of the original Wasteland games, or just an RPG fan in general, then I highly recommend picking up Wasteland 3 and giving it a try.
Spaziogames - Paolo Sirio - Italian - 8.3 / 10
Wasteland 3 doesn't change its predecessor's successful formula but, outside of certain design limitations, it perfects and modernizes it. It's easily the best game in the franchise, in terms of pure technique, and one that clearly gives you an idea of what inXile is able to achieve.
The Games Machine - Danilo Dellafrana - Italian - 8.7 / 10
Wasteland 3 is a good role-playing game, technically passable but enriched by a dense network of intriguing subplots that will push the most dedicated to play it several times. Watch out for the ever-present release bugs, though – best to wait a couple patches if you want to avoid unnecessary hurdles.
TrustedReviews - Alastair Stevenson - 4 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 is a solid tactical RPG that will keep fans of the genre entertained for hours upon hours. But it doesn't do enough to bring the genre forward to a mainstream audience.
WayTooManyGames - Thomas Medina - 9 / 10
All in all, this is the game I wanted so badly for Wasteland 2 to be. It doesn’t just repeat what came before, but expands upon it all. Not just mechanically, but story wise as well.
Wccftech - Francesco De Meo - 9 / 10
Wasteland 3 features everything only the best role-playing games do: an engaging story powered by excellent writing, compelling characters, tons of customization options, and a deep tactical combat system that feels fresh even after dozens of hours. But, most of all, it features a living world that reacts to what the player does, and changes depending on how the player decides to deal with the troubles ahead, providing a role-playing experience of the highest degree, one that very few games can boast of.
Windows Central - Jez Corden - 5 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 is a testament to the power of the branching narrative, taking it far beyond binary choices and into a grand canopy of cause and effect. It gives the wintry climbs of Colorado a lifelike quality that must have been painstaking to build. The most impressive RPG in years, Wasteland 3 is a masterpiece.
XboxEra - Jesse Norris - 9.7 / 10
Wasteland 3 shines with clear dedication to crafting the best game its genre has ever seen. Excellent visuals are matched by top notch voice work and some of the best and most natural writing I have seen in a video game not made by Naughty Dog. The combat is a brutal dance where one wrong move can spell disaster, but victory is an exhilarating rush that never becomes old. Wasteland 3 cements inXile as one of the best in the business in the RPG genre and affirms that Xbox has something truly special on their hands.

##### Student Loan Default: The Guide (ReUploaded)

NOTE: I'm pasting this guide from where I originally found it, over on Studentloandefaulters. It was originally pasted there from someone who found it after the original was deleted.

# Student Loan Default: The Guide (reuploaded)

📷
The original guide that was recently deleted here: https://www.reddit.com/studentloandefaulters/comments/cg1fd7/student_loan_default_a_guide/
I take no credit for this post, just happened to have it saved in a document and thought I'd be doing an injustice by not sharing this information once I saw the original post was missing! All credit goes to the original author, and without further ado...
Student Loan Default: A Guide
I’ve been wanting to write this for a long time, and seeing that person be in \$500,000 of debt and no one really helping him on studentloans, I felt it was time to summarize everything I’ve learned. While there is great information on this sub, it is not centralized. It requires some digging. I hope now to bring all of it to the surface.
Definitions:
Strategic Default: When a borrower realizes that he or she can spend less money by not paying a loan. The borrower waits out the statute of limitations and then either settles or waits the debt out.
Shills: People who are paid to prevent the spread of student loan default information
Statute of Limitations: The number of years your state requires before a debt can no longer be collected.
Cosigner: The poor person who is just as legally required to pay your loans as you are
Foreign Earned Income Tax Exclusion: A tax rule that states any US citizen can earn up to about \$100,000 a year in another country and report their US taxes as 0.
Fraudulent Transfer: When a party tries to move assets to someone else in order to avoid a lien on their property.
Lien: Essentially when the government slaps a bill onto your property forcing you to pay off a debt before you can sell the property.
Income Based Repayment (IBR): Federal loans can be paid with 15% of your discretionary income (money earned after taxes) instead of a higher, unpayable amount
Aggregate Student Loan Limit: The total amount a student can take out before the federal government or a private lender stops authorizing new loans
Wage Garnishment: When a court forces your employer to take out a certain percentage of your paycheck to pay back a debt
Bank Levy: When the government or a court takes all of the money directly out of your bank account to pay a debt
Private Loans: Loans that originate from anyone but the federal government. These loans have a statute of limitations and less power but higher interest rates.
Federal Loans: These loans have no statute of limitations, the government can collect anything you earn to get these back, and they come with IBR which is manageable
Sallie Mae: The worst private lender on the market. They only offer deferment for four short years.
Forbearance: A period where you do not have to pay your student loans, but interest accrues.
Deferment: A period where you do not have to pay your student loans, but interest does not accrue.
Credit Score: A number that tells people how responsible of a borrower you are.
Student Loan Tax Bomb: After you have paid for 10 - 25 years on your federal loans, you are forgiven the rest. That is considered income by the IRS. You then add this “income” to your regular income for the year and pay the tax. It can be over \$10,000.
Insolvency: When you are unable to pay your debts. This works well for defusing the student loan tax bomb.
Public Service Loan Forgiveness: If you work for 10 years at a government job, you can get your entire federal student loan balance forgiven. In 2019, the feds are making it near impossible to collect. This could change.
A note on cosigners before we begin: Look, your cosigner is probably going to be very mad at you. Prepare for your relationship to be strained. You need to try and get them on the same page as you, and I do offer a tactic here to at least shift all of the financial burden off of your cosigner below. If you decide to do any of these tactics without getting your cosigner off the hook, there could be more risk involved if you or your cosigners have a lot of assets.
Strategy
Student loan default is a strategy. And to have a good strategy, one must plan as much as possible. You have to know all of your options. While strategy is your overall game plan, tactics are the individual options you have to get your strategy accomplished. Below are the tactics that you can employ to beat the student loan companies.
Tactics
Default Private Default Federal: [medium risk] Some of the wilder people have attempted to default on both federal and private loans in order to do a cash settlement. The same strategy above in Default Private IBR Federal applies, but realize that the US government could just step in and do an administrative garnish on you eventually. If you were living some sort of cash existence, you could potentially avoid them and then write them a money order and settle for 30% or something. This way, you avoid the tax bomb and would probably pay a lot less interest overall. If you do this and it works, I would love to hear about it.
Cat and Mouse: [medium risk] So, you want to avoid getting sued or you lost a judgement? You don’t have to sit back and take it. u/nowaysalliemae has successfully avoided being sued by essentially going on the run. You see, to be sued successfully, they need to know where you work. If you get sued, move to another state, and switch jobs, they have to do the entire process over again! This means find you, verify the debt, sue you, etc. You can essentially do this until your statute of limitations runs out. And then, you dispute the debt on your credit score. They take it off at that point, and you just saved a lot of money. I decided to put this as medium risk, because moving around a lot would require some luck. Especially since you would need to work wherever you go, there are a lot of moving parts here. I think it is totally doable, and if you are an adventurous personality type, it could be a lot of fun. This only works for the private student loan side, because the US government has a lot more power. You would still IBR your federal loans on this tactic. For more information, go through nowaysalliemae's post history.
Suspend Payment Without More Debt: [low risk] So recently, it has been brought to my attention that there is a community college, Luna Community College (in Las Vegas, NM), that has tuition so low you could go half time all year for about 684 dollars. They have a small amount of associate's degrees. If you just want to stop paying without taking any more loans, this would be the way to do it. You could do this for many years. Luna Community College's tuition matrix: https://luna.edu/tuition_matrix
Convert Federal Loans to Private: [medium risk] So, what if you wanted to go the opposite way? Maybe you want to convert all of your federal loans to private ones, default, and then leave the country? Hey, maybe there are reasons you want to hurry up the settlement process. You could essentially do the same strategy as above, but instead just borrow from Sallie Mae, Wells Fargo, etc until all of your federal loans are paid off. Then, either cat and mouse or leave the country. I don’t think a lot of people would find a use for this, but hey who knows?
Final Thoughts: Defaulting on student loans is not immoral or a sin. It is a business decision. Everyone else gets bailouts, why should student borrowers be any different? You’re going to have to ignore the people who tell you why they think you should be a good little slave and pay your loans. Those people are not your friends. Those people are not on your side. Some of the best advice I ever received in life was you have to do what’s best for you. Also, if you have anything you would like to add to this or would like to challenge, please let me know. I want this to be as accurate as possible. I will be looking at this perpetually to make sure there are no errors. Take care. Good luck. You can do this.

# MAKE MONEY WITH TRADING (Forex, Stocks, Binary Options)

https://preview.redd.it/onvu1owbn2v51.jpg?width=640&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=63508b4c3653556bc53e4ef2df86a29df5e5dd0b
Trading consists of buying and selling assets, such as stocks, futures, currencies or derivatives, in a financial market. To trade, so that we obtain benefits, we will have to speculate with the movements in the price of the assets. This is the first step to making money from trading.
The word trading is usually associated with short-term investments, that is, short operations that seek benefits limited to a small time frame.
In other words, trading and investing are the same, only the time frame changes.
So if you hear terms like "stock trading" or "stock trading" it is the same thing, only they usually refer to different time frames.
The person who invests or trades is called a trader. A trader then is someone who invests in the financial markets.
As you can see I am adding several concepts so that we all start from the same base.
So, trading is basically buying and selling assets, trying to buy at the lowest possible price and sell as high as possible. As simple as that.
By advanced trader I mean someone who already knows how to trade but that doesn't necessarily make him a winning trader. In most cases they apply complicated strategies and forget something as simple as the bases.
How much can a trader earn? You put the roof on it, there is no limit. I recommend you measure your progress in percentages and not in nominals. It is best to verify your progress.
Is it necessary to be in a Trading Academy? Like everything, there are some who like to be social and others who prefer to work in a self-taught way. In trading, it is the same. If you need the constant support of people to not be demotivated, then a Trading Academy is a good option. Now, if you are an already motivated person who only needs to clear up doubts, then the best thing is a mentor, consulting professional, or a trading teacher who clears your doubts.
The foundations for making money trading have to be solid if we want to make profits consistently. So today I want to emphasize that, the foundations of being a successful trader. Let us begin!

# How to Make Money Trading Reddit - Key Steps

https://preview.redd.it/la3o4919o2v51.jpg?width=640&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=02e5635985796aa609c9ed4848285b4ce69f1196
Buying in supports is buying in a key area where the price exerts a certain friction preventing the price from continuing to advance, for whatever reason.
A support is nothing more than an area where the asset finds the confidence of investors, it is the level where they estimate that it is a good purchase price for them, and that is why they buy the asset in question, in such a way that the asset finds help in that level.
Most trading systems, at least the ones I know of which are a few, are based on this principle but what happens, they camouflage it with flourishes.
Instead of saying, to the purchase in supports, they add colored mirrors so that it does not look so simple.
I'm not saying that details are not good, but exaggeration of details can lead to confusion and later paralysis.
Systems must necessarily be simple.
Buying in stands not only improves your overall entry, but it drastically lowers your risks. The further we move away from a support, the more the risk increases.
Many times we end up buying halfway because the price "escaped" us and we think that we will not have another equal opportunity. The reality is that the market always provides opportunities for those who know how to wait.
There is a saying that the beginning trader has fun in the market, the professional trader gets bored.
This does not mean that the professional trader does things reluctantly, or that he does not like to invest. It means that the professional trader waits crouched, calm, for that opportunity that he is looking for appears, that entry into support that reduces his risk. While the novice trader enters and exits the market euphoric.
A professional trader can be in front of the screen all day and not make a single trade. The novice trader, on the other hand, if he spends more than 5 minutes without trading, he already feels bad, anxious and thinks that he is losing opportunities.
2) Execute stop loss
Holding losses is the biggest mistake of traders. Who in the beginning has not moved the stop loss because the operation moved against him?
It's a very common mistake. We enter the market, we put the stop, the operation turns against us and instead of executing the stop, we RUN IT!
We are camicaces.
The typical phrase "I'm waiting to recover" has burned entire wallets.
The market fell 40% and instead of leaving, they began to pray.
The great advantage of small portfolios, that is, investors with little capital, is flexibility and speed of reaction.
By running the stop loss you are losing the only advantage you have with respect to professionals and large investors. Because they sure have more capital and have wider margins.
Please don't take losses, don't run the stop loss.
If you miss the stop, distance yourself from the market and analyze why that happened to you for the next better place your stop.
3) Sell in resistonce
I want you to remember something. Until you sell, the profits are not yours.
Until you sell, you have no money.
Until you sell, you cannot say that the operation was successful.
Many traders are very good at finding entries. They perfectly see the supports and manage to enter at the best prices. But what happens to them, they don't sell.
It hits a key resistance, where price clearly can't break through and what they do, they hold out in case it breaks.
The worst, the price does not break or make an upthrust (which would be a kind of professional feint), it returns to support, it bounces, it goes back to resistance and what we do ... we wait again to see if it breaks, because now it is the correct.
And there is a worse case. It reaches resistance and we want to apply the phrase "let the profits run", so what do we do, we adjust the stop loss near the resistance in case the price breaks and continues.
The price tests the resistance, falls, touches our stop and we run it in case the price returns to the path. Instead of applying the phrase “let the profits run” we apply the phrase “let the losses run”.
An old master used to say, when the price reaches resistance, I collect my winnings and go on vacation.
It seems silly but it is a way of telling our brain, if you do things well you have a prize.
Sell ​​in resistance, the market always gives new opportunities.
4) The Trend is your friend
No better elaborated phrase. The trend is your friend. And as we all know, almost no one pays attention to their friends. We ask them for advice and if they don't say what we want to hear, we won't.
If the price goes up, where do you have to invest?
"It is not that the price was stretched too much and surely now a correction is coming, so I invest against it."
You are seeing that the trend is upward in an annual, monthly, weekly, daily, hourly and minute time frame, but just in case you invest against it.
Please, the trend is your friend, if it tells you that the price is going up, it is because it is going up.
I invested in favor of the trend. You do not want to beat the market because I assure you that it breaks your arm in a blink of an eye.
In the financial markets there are no certainties, only probabilities and whoever tells you otherwise is surely not winning in silver.
What we are looking for are windows of statistical opportunities. In other words, we try to turn the odds in our favor.
That is why it is always important to ask yourself the question, what is more likely, that the price will go up or down?
This is because many times we operate and do not realize that the odds are against us.
We can never be 100% certain, but just putting the odds in our favor by making concrete decisions based on logic and not on emotions can earn us a lot of money.
6) Consistency
You often see many traders showing one or two of their most successful trades and the occasional loss. This is good for teaching purposes, and it is useful for transmitting teachings.
But if you want to become a professional trader you need consistency. And consistency does not speak of an isolated operation, it speaks of sustained profits over time.
And when I say time I speak of years. Not a month, not a week, not a semester. 3 years, 5 years, 10 years, 20 years.
To give you an idea, ultra-professional traders fight to see who is more consistent.
In other words, the first question they ask themselves is how many years have you been winning?
A trader who every year earns a tight, modest percentage, reasonable to say the least, but consistently, is a much better professional than one who doubles the capital one year and the other is -90.
Consistency is highly treasured as it allows for simulations, strategizing, and even projections.
The number of traders who invest without having a trading plan is impressive. Something so important, so simple to make, so useful and very few use it.
A trading plan allows you to analyze your operations, see what you are doing, and then improve.
When we don't have a trading plan, what we did last week goes completely unnoticed because we can't internalize the teaching.
And when I speak of teachings, they can be gains or losses.
A loss allows us to adjust the plan but a success also.
In fact, when we have several successful operations, there is nothing better than taking their teachings and replicating them.
The trading plan is the only tool that allows us to do this, learn, improve and be the most objective possible, leaving aside emotions.

https://preview.redd.it/ljyjklqgo2v51.jpg?width=640&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=c50d6af6b81521fbbfe25938c98971e1592de261
When it comes to the currency market, one of the most popular trading markets is Forex. It represents the world's largest decentralized currency market. So we will answer how to make money from forex trading.
With only having a computer, tablet or mobile phone, and an excellent internet connection service, you will be able to operate from anywhere in the world in the Forex market. It has the great strength of being flexible and adaptable to all types of investors.
Select a prominent broker or intermediary agent, one that is recognized and very professional. Conduct negotiation trials with him, so that you get to know each other and do not put your capital at risk.
Develop together the work style that most identifies you and decide to earn money by trading, enriching yourself with all the possible knowledge and strategies.
Acquire strengths in detecting the ideal moment to carry out operations. You will achieve this by studying and understanding the graphs and trends of transactions, detecting that unique pattern that tells you when is the right time to proceed.
Do not hesitate, it is possible to earn a lot of money with trading! But, make sure, above all things, train yourself with a duly accredited professional, in guarantee of acquiring quality theoretical knowledge, imperative to understand the movement of the market.

# How to Make Money Trading Reddit - Final Words

Trading is an “investment vehicle” that can serve your objectives of having financial peace of mind as long as it is part of a broad economic and financial planning in the short, medium and long term. If not, trading can become a fast track to lose your money, if you lack the necessary knowledge, experience and training. Follow the following formula to Make Money in Trading Consistently:

# The Art of a Binary Options Scam

Binary options, fraudulent “trading products” that are designed to part prospective investors from their money are very different from real options. In essence, they are simply a bet that the price of a particular asset will rise in a given time frame. If you win the gamble, the company is supposed to pay a fixed payout, within the 70%-95% range. If you lose, however, you not only lose the “payout” but the initial investment as well.
If this was merely the case this would fall under the category of gambling, something that millions upon millions of individuals do recreationally. However, that is primarily not the case. With almost all binary options brokers you are “trading” against the broker and not the market. The broker wants you to lose, or else the company would not make a profit. Even if the broker pays out your winnings he can easily govern your profit with payout conditions. This means that even if you have a winning formula, the company will just decrease the payout, ensuring you ultimately lose in the long term.

## There is more to the scam

That, unfortunately, is not where it ends. Numerous “brokers” are notorious for spreading fictitious stories about their clientele making gigantic profits with trading robots. Almost all of them manipulate their price curves to prevent you from winning. What’s worse is even if you do win, many of them refuse to pay out, and ultimately drop off the face of the earth (with your money).
Now clients are left in with a major dilemma. To whom do they turn? To the police? To regulators? The answer to these questions is that it depends. Most of these binary options brokers are not regulated and are located offshore, allowing them to do what they want. Often in their terms and conditions, they concoct various rules that ensure they keep your money once they have it. When it comes to regulators such as ASIC or the FCA they are relatively useless as they cannot shut down the actual binary options websites and to make it even worse search engines such as Google allow these websites to appear in their search content.

## Shouldn’t the banks put a stop to this?

Yes, they should. However, the banks, which should be the number one line of defense against these scams either do not know the extent of the problem or are turning a blind eye to their nefarious activities. Additionally, in order to process credit card, debit card payments most of the binary options brokers have registered a small company in an E.U. country.

## Recovery scams

Unfortunately, fraud encourages more fraud. Various individuals targeted U.S. citizens who were swindled by the now-defunct brokerage, Banc de Binary, and a few other binary options companies that were being sued by the SEC or the CFTC (Commodity Futures Trading Commission). They impersonated SEC officials as part of an advanced-fee fraud scheme in which they deceived victims into forwarding them money. Approximately 95 individuals were targeted by this despicable scheme and 25 of them sent 235 thousand dollars in total to these swindlers.
What to Do if You Have Been Scammed
If you have fallen victim to a cryptocurrency scam, send a complaint to at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), and we will do our very best to get into contact with you as soon as we can to initiate your funds recovery process.

##### Summary of Tau-Chain Monthly Video Update - July 2020

Karim
Agoras Live: Five functionalities complete: 1. Registration 2. Login 3. User Profile Page 4. Calendar 5. Categories List 6. Wallet Screen Payments: Decided that implementing lightning would be too complex. Instead, we decided to implement our own micropayment mechanism using the native BTC multisig addresses. We are going to use the Omni wallet for payments. TML: Continued debugging, getting a TML demo and test cases ready. Hiring: More hiring efforts to increase team size. Timelines: Committing ourselves to a release of Agoras Live and a basic version of discussions in TML in 2020.
Umar: Been working on making improvements to the context free grammar parsing. We now are able to add constraints to productions in the grammar, allowing us to recognize grammars that are context sensitive. Developed test cases for that, too.
Tomas: Fixed issues in TML and ran several steps in a TML program. Now adding more tests to make sure everything is stable and won’t break. Also been working on a TML tutorial, a recorded script based on the intro to TML which was contained in the TML Playground. Also new features are going to be covered such as arithmetics.
Andrei: Agoras Live: Implemented mail system so users now get their mails (e.g. registration email). Improved UX together with Mo’az, e.g. user profiles. Token creation for accessing calls to identify and charge users. Customized Jitsi interface to suit our needs: E.g. display of how much time passed in a call and how much it costs. Next up: Further improve UX; make sure everything works as intended.
Mo’az: Almost finished the IDNI website. Added two more pages: Events & Bounties in collaboration with Fola & Kilian. Agoras Live: Finetuned all the website’s components in collaboration with Andrei.
Juan: Continued working on the payments system for Agoras Live. Had some delays due to the complexity of debugging such applications. Still, we made significant progress and got the funding transactions implemented over the Lightning network through the Omni layer. Spent time analyzing the minimum amount of BTC to pay for the fees associated to the Omni transactions. We aren’t using segregated witness native addresses and instead are using embedded segregated witness. So transaction sizes are enlarged and transaction fees are a bit higher. So there is a bit of finetuning analysis needed in order to enable the multisig address to pay for the closing & refund transactions. So to provide payment channels over the Omni layer, the main remaining technical detail we have to solve at this point is the closing transaction & the refund transaction.
Fola: Have been continuing to look for great talent in different areas. Continued working on website with Mo’az and Kilian. Been working on the branding for Tau & Agoras. Been getting external support to make sure the branding for Tau & Agoras will be as professional as it can be. Working on marketing efforts needed for the release of Agoras Live to get the media pack for marketing ready. Working together with external people to put a plan together for listing the Agoras token on more prominent exchanges as we get closer to release of Agoras Live.
Q&A:
Q: With the project development taking longer than other projects such as Tezos, when can AGRS holders expect something to be released and, how can you reassure us that we made the right decision?
A: With regards to when we see some releases, it seems that we will see some releases in 2020. For comparing to Ethereum and Tezos: Let’s first talk about funding. Both projects had a lot of money. For Ethereum, the reason for is that it has probably done one of the most aggressive marketing campaigns in history. It was completely lacking any kind of honesty. It was simply aggressive. None of Ethereum’s visions and promises became true. It simply became an insecure platform for scams. None of their vision of creating a world computer, of creating a better society, a better currency, became true. Because of this aggressive marketing, they not only raised a lot of money, they also took the price to be so high in the market. If you remember the campaign of the flipping, they did a whole campaign on how they would overtake the marketcap of Bitcoin. For Tezos, they made maybe the largest ICO in history in terms of money, mainly because they came at the right time, at the top of the bubble in 2017, and also their promises for better coordination didn’t come true. Their solution is based on voting and based on Turing completeness and the only reason why they managed to gain such a market cap as of today, is not because they offer better currency, better society, better anything. It basically is a Ponzi-scheme because they offer very high interest rate by very high inflation (5,51%). The only reason why people buy Tezos is to get into this Ponzi-scheme. Because both Tezos and Ethereum lack any true economical or technological substance, their value will not sustain and this is true for almost all projects in the cryptocurrency world. In the software, high-tech market, if you come up with good tech and you do all the right things, you succeed big time. But if you don’t have it and you are purely relying on brainwashing people, it will not sustain. Of course, our solution is so disruptive and sustainable. We offer to do advancements for humanity and for economy.
Q: What three subjects would you first like to see discussed on Tau?
A: Of course, picking three subjects now is a bit speculative, but the first thing that comes to mind is the definitions of what good and bad means and what better and worse means. The second subject is the governance model over Tau. The third one is the specification of Tau itself and how to make it grow and evolve even more to suit wider audiences. The whole point of Tau is people collaborating in order to define Tau itself and to improve it over time, so it will improve up to infinity. This is the main thing, especially initially, that the Tau developers (or rather users) advance the platform more and more.
Q: What is stopping programmers using TML right now? If nothing, what is your opinion on why they aren’t?
A: There is nothing essentially missing in TML in order to let it release. And in fact, we are now working towards packaging it and bringing it towards a release level. For things like documentation, bug fixes, minor features, minor optimizations. We indeed actively work towards releasing TML 1.0 and then we can publish it in e.g. developers channels for them to use it.

##### efficiency costs of purchase vs awakenings ideal ranks and their use in winning tournaments

https://preview.redd.it/govc8j6lwaw41.jpg?width=720&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b53ae8c35f697ea53d6d292ec05f434f29578784
blue = gem cost of initial purchase of a hero at that starting rank, vs. red = gem cost of the awakenings needed to get them to R6 (800*each rank) - together being 100% of their total cost. The "box"-looking effect is the proportion that each rank takes up irt its' relative cost - e.g., the blue boxes are always larger b/c they offer less efficiency at 1500/rank instead of the 800/rank for each awakening; and they are different sizes b/c the heroes have different total costs (i.e., so the awakenings take up a smaller or larger relative proportion of it). The black line is then the % of tokens that can be skipped when starting off with a hero at that starting rank, and the green dashed lines represent each successive rank above that, which are always the same regardless of a hero's starting rank: so a R0 hero starts off with none, but then at R1 is 3% of the way through, then at R2, R3, R4, R5, and R6 is 9, 18, 29, 53, and 1005 of the way through. Speaking of, I did not make another one for R7 though I could if there is interest - still, this should help get across the main points. And yes, I realize that there are no heroes that start at R3, or R6 (yet!), but it was easier to leave those in than to take them out.
Also an accompanying table of other helpful numbers.

starting rank: R0 R1 R2 R3 (though no hero starts here) R4 R5 R6 (doesn't exist - yet!?)
total gem cost: 4800 5500 6200 6900 7600 8300 9000
remaining tokens to R6: 170 165 155 140 120 80 0
People keep asking questions about the "efficiency" of ranking up heroes for tournament usage, so I thought I would share this graph, in case it helps.
For instance, did you realize that once you buy a hero that comes pre-awakened to R2, you've already spent nearly *half* of their total gem cost to fully awaken them to R6? (4 more awakenings*800 each=3200, vs. their 3000 price-tag) Although you start off only skipping 9% of the total tokens needed to get them there ((5+10)/(5+10+15+20+40+80)). Especially for newer players considering which heroes to buy and rank up to unlock worlds, these heroes offer fantastic utility for the campaign, Endless mode, and higher-difficulty RS situations. And then once bought, they offer the same efficiency as any other hero to finish off to their R6 for use in tournaments. It's a matter of preference to get one or several of them early and enjoy their use in the campaign, or to avoid their high cost and just awaken more inexpensive ones for faster, though more difficult progress.
In contrast, the heroes that come pre-awakened to R5 are more expensive - but their purchase price represents 90% of their total gem costs, and they already have more than half the total tokens that would be needed to unlock their R6. In short, if you have the gems, it's way more efficient to purchase Yan or Narlax and then finish them off to their R6 than it is to start a new hero at R1 (although if you would have to save up the gems first, read this post instead: https://www.reddit.com/RealmDefenseTD/comments/g1mmg5/advice_about_awakening_existing_heroes_vs_buying/). (Also, do not buy Leif, at least not for the sake of tournaments, although he's great for campaign, and the #1 hero for RS, so especially good for getting a new event hero to higher rank.)
As far as it pertains to "ideal" ranks (those below R6 that are worth pausing at, to win during a hero's week), that is something that many newer players want to know about, but don't quite realize that it's not necessarily for them just yet. But for those that are keen to know, read https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Meta#Season_11_Meta.2FAnalysis for the utility of heroes in Tournament settings, and https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Awakening_Tokens#Most_powerful_Ranks for the utility of each awakening, plus https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Heroes_overview for some additional commentary on hero ideal ranks. For instance, Smoulder has 2 of them, for different purposes: R4 for anti-flier stun situational effect, R5 for his own week that adds stun & a reduced cooldown, although really for his own week he's mostly R6-or-bust, but that depends heavily on the league & the lateness of the season.
I should perhaps add that I've never had much luck with ideal ranks. They seem mostly to be useful in Diamond League, and then by Masters already they are no longer useful. That said, you should give each one careful thought, individually for each hero, b/c it can save you a TON of time from getting a hero's R6 when you didn't need it (yet). Perhaps the most (in-)famous example is Yan's R6, which she doesn't need on her own week (I've literally seen Gold- rather than Purple-outlined Yans among the *very* top scores of a league), probably b/c she doesn't have great skills to help turn her blessed stat boost into actual DAMAGE (being mainly a "support" hero, which she is good at), and especially if you don't even have Efrigid or Bolton yet to receive the synergy that her R6 talent would offer, then it is fairly useless. Though these things do tend to change over time - like Narlax's R6 also used to be unnecessary, until this past season (11) when on his own blessed week it became mandatory to pull several strong bosses. Also one of Hogan's ideal ranks used to be R3 iirc (when his R5 decreased rather than increased his attack speed, before it was switched), then last season it became R5 to keep him alive (also against a strong boss), and now this season it looks like his blessed week is strongly pushing even his R6? Oh yes, some heroes can't/shouldn't really be paused at all, like Lancelot who prior to R6 is flat-out replaceable even when blessed, but at R6 gains a STRONG anti-air utility that is absolutely mandatory to win that week (as in, if ANYONE else in your group has it, who isn't terribly unskilled, then you have little chance to get a higher score than them).
Where the concept of "ideal ranks" is most helpful then, is when you already have (most of) the Meta, and are looking to win more reliably each week. Having a hero at an ideal rank may not be required to win in Gold League for instance, but it can be helpful to use that along the way while you work on other things too (like a second hero's ideal rank, or their R6, or even continuing on with the same hero, just holding back on the actual gem cost - btw strong shout-out thanks to lanclos for sharing with me most of what I know about ideal ranks:-). I suppose it may be like identifying potential resting spots while climbing a mountain - once you identify them you can either pause and rest at them, or else of course skip them and keep going, but either way they may be nice to at least plan to pass by during your ascent, just in case you find that you need them.
SPEAKING OF, here are some additional thoughts on tournaments that might help in that regard, though first I'll have to cover some basics:
a) there is an effect I call the "leading edge" whereby the earlier weeks in the season are the hardest. e.g., *this week* in Gold League is literally the hardest week that it will ever be in this season, b/c *this* is the week that it contains the most senior players (like former GMs). Then, next week, Platinum League will be created, and will be populated by the top 3 players from each group that managed to get promoted - which lets face it tends to be the most senior players, with the deepest hero investments and also the most experience & skill; and thus *that week* will be the hardest that Platinum will ever see, and so on in Diamond, and Masters, and...actually Legendary is special, b/c once a player reaches GM, they remain there. But the other leagues get easier the further the season goes, b/c of all the more senior players getting promoted each week. So therefore the last week of each season (prior to Legendary) is literally the easiest to get promoted in.
There are some important modifiers to this, b/c it may be easy or hard in general but not for you b/c of the heroes you have, and also an effect where campers used to try to not get promoted so quickly, but then towards the end of the season get nervous and want to move upwards, but anyway, this is generally true. So when I say "in lower leagues, later in the season", what I mean is "further away from the leading edge". IN OTHER WORDS, the difficulty of Gold League on week #1 is nowhere NEAR the same difficulty as Gold League on week #15. On the other hand, Platinum League on week #2 is quite similar actually to the difficulty of Legendary League, anytime, b/c that is the league where at that time all the veterans are (with anything above Platinum not yet having been created). See what I mean? But b/c of this effect, any talk about "Gold League" or "Platinum League" must be merely an average of how difficult it is to win, which basically means mid-way away from the leading edge, although be aware of these variations where earlier means *much*-harder-than-average, and later means much easier.
b) Gold League further is special in its' being so small, and in having players that haven't finished the campaign yet, which (vastly) increases the number of total players, and has the effect of "diluting" / spreading the veteran players out between/among the various groups. Therefore, even on week #1, its' difficulty is nowhere near as hard as Legendary League, b/c of being mitigated by this effect. Platinum on week #2 also isn't *quite* as hard as Legendary for similar reasons (the group size being 30 instead of 50; and effects like even former GMs lacking Hogan and not being promoted while others who have Hogan's R6 can do even better), but...Gold is truly special in being the easiest league to win in (aside from the non-repeatable Bronze and Silver of course). Though again, for people having trouble getting promoted from Gold League, take heart: as the season progresses it WILL get easier!:-)
c) in Gold League, with Koi & Raida you can pretty much win by accident even w/o meteors (though this particular week requires Narlax too, and might even need meteors - though I have never used any to get out of Gold myself). This is b/c those heroes provide so much higher utility, compared to so MANY players that lack them, that you definitely have a good chance. And that chance keeps repeating every week, as it gets easier and easier later and later into the season, so if you don't get promoted one week, keep trying the next. The advice for players lacking Koi & Raida is the same: keep trying, and eventually you'll get into a group that lacks Koi, or perhaps someone who doesn't know how to use them yet, and you CAN win! And if you truly want to prioritize this aspect of the game, before you finish the campaign, get a hero to an ideal rank or even R6, and on their blessed week, if it's late enough, you'll have a VERY good shot (though perhaps also needing good generic heroes like Narlax and Leif, unless you get VERY lucky with your group placement, or outright R6 a few heroes for this purpose).
d) in Platinum, it gets a bit harder. Though, if you have the Meta, not by that much. For those who have Raida & Koi, also pick up Yan, necro-Connie, Narlax, and Smoulder's R4 and you'll do fine in Platinum, even without the blessed hero (though of course, earlier in the season you may need them, while later you can get by without them, having strong generic+situational replacements).
e) in Diamond, it gets harder still, where you start to need the blessed hero more often. Though not every week, and not necessarily at an "ideal"/pausing rank. Two seasons ago (while I was still R6ing Koi) I got promoted by having Obsidian, not at his ideal rank of R4 but just about level 20 and rank R2 - & even then he was replaceable with Efri's R6 (which I did not have) - though that was week #13 out of 15, so very late. Many other similar stories told by veteran players abound: Mabyn's R2, Helios's R4, and if you have Yan's R6, then also Efri's R4 & Bolton's R3, etc.
f) in Masters, it is pretty much R6-or-bust, and so you are already past the stage where ideal ranks can help you for the most part (I mean Yan's R5 would probably still work, and Helios's R4 b/c towers don't add much to tournament situations, but...not much else). *If* you use the blessed hero at all, you probably need them all the way to R6. Though there are a few situations where a hero is outright replaceable - chiefly Sethos, Leif, and Masamune (possibly needing to be quite late in the season for that one), all of whom lack anti-air capabilities (though Masamune's R7 is going to change that!).
g) that said, Masters League is still nowhere near as difficult as Legendary. Scores that would get you promoted out of Masters won't even get you a reward in Legendary (although THIS season looks to be changing that - thus encouraging promotion and concurrently discouraging camping in lower leagues - definitely a plus for both veteran and more junior players alike!). Also, for the most part you can get by without the whole entire cast of "situational" heroes that are needed in Legendary, to win a GM. What I mean is: when veteran players have ALL the heroes to choose from, and they are all at R6, they can find the absolute BEST one for any given week - which could be Efri, Mabyn, Azura, Caldera, Connie, Helios, Shamiko, Narlax, Smoulder, etc., and if you want to get a GM, you need to have whatever it is that week that is among the BEST. While in Masters, you most often don't - so actually, R6-or-bust isn't that hard to do, at least compared to Legendary where you need both the blessed hero that week AND one of a large(-ish?) cast of situational heroes, and of course their R6 as well.
h) an argument against ideal ranks is that it may spread out your hero investments too thin to let you win many weeks. On the other hand, an argument for it is that even having a hero's R6 doesn't guarantee a win (e.g., at first I was absolutely terrible at using Narlax - and still I have yet to ever win a week where he is blessed). Also aiming for ideal ranks lets you maximize your elixir income (https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Realm_Siege_Strategies). Though an R6 hero also offers the option to use that hero even when not blessed (and yet this works better for some heroes and not so well for others - e.g., Mabyn can perhaps win at R2 in Diamond, but as a situational hero needs her 5th meteor talent gained at R6 to truly be effective; while Bolton + Obsidian are mostly only used when blessed, and never outside of that - although this week may again be revealing that the devs may change that in the future!). Therefore there are many benefits to either using, or not using, ideal ranks.
Ultimately whether you want to pause at an ideal rank, or keep going all the way to R6 for every hero that you own, seems to be a matter of personal preference: how EXTREME of a personality are you? Do you want to work on increasing your MAXIMUM power, to possibly win a GM title sooner - but also maybe fail to even reach Legendary League at all, as a more junior player, and also have little chance at all on weeks that you lack the blessed hero (at least in Diamond League, or others earlier in the season, closer to the seasonal reset - i.e., take a risk, and maybe be #1 on the weeks you've prepared heavily for, but then score very low on (many of) those you've invested literally nothing into? Or do you prefer to aim for a more AVERAGE level of power, which may leave you unable to be promoted on a given week (maybe several of them), but yet still maybe get some rewards, not being the best but neither being the worst, and yet still get practice either way, and maybe win sooner with less of a hero investment needed into a particular week, leaving you free to focus your efforts elsewhere?
Like most things in life, the ideal path is probably somewhere between the most extreme of R6ing one hero before moving on to the next, vs. having all heroes at ideal ranks but none at R6. Though there are people who have pursued each of those strategies! (and I can tell you some of their names if you want:-) Ultimately you need 4 wins to get to Legendary League, and then at least 1 more if you want a GM title that season. So pick a few heroes to get to R6, another few to get to ideal ranks, and with that collection you'll do well. Another hint: do you want your strongest hero investments to be earlier in the season, in your lowest league, or later, in the highest? Watch the https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Blessed_Heroes_-_Tournament page to see how early a hero is blessed in the last few seasons, and pick one that will likely be blessed later rather than earlier, and then aim to buy that hero and work on increasing their power. e.g., Yan and Narlax are both in the Meta, and blessed mid-to-late-season.
Also there are a TON of other helpful tips - about towers, heroes and synergies and combo moves, and many other tournament topics on https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Tournament_Basic_Info and https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Tournament_Detailed_Strategy. So now all that's left is for me to wish you good luck!:-)

Edit: while I thought about adding these couple of thoughts before, they didn't specifically touch on ideal ranks, so I left them out. But so many are asking so I'll put them in after all...
i) there are 3 hero roles to fulfill each week: generic, situational, and blessed. If you want to think about it harder it's "really" 2 situational and 1 blessed, but since right now one of those slots is nearly ALWAYS Koi, the former formula is at least a nice way to think about/remember it.
generic: especially if you lack blessed heroes and/or Koi, this is about all you've got - so use it! When you get to W3, Helios or Sethos can work, to help get you promoted from Gold - though you shouldn't get them just for this purpose (it is terribly inefficient to buy new heroes all the time when you can awaken earlier ones for nearly half the cost, though that takes TIME so this is a strategy mainly for P2W players). In W4, Yan and especially Narlax can get you promoted in Platinum (though again, don't buy JUST for this short-term purpose), and in W5, Leif/Caldera can get you promoted even as high as Diamond (later in the season). I doubt that any of these can get you promoted in Masters, and if anyone ever actuall DID that, they should count their lucky stars, but it's not something that you should "expect" to happen. Once you get Raida and Koi though, you'll never use these other heroes for their "generic" utility again.
situational: usually there is some hero / class of heroes that will work best for a given week. Otherwise, for example, if the only powerful heroes you have are Koi & Leif, then every week you'll always bring them, for their *generic* power. But Leif hardly does anything against fliers - merely blessing towers which, while that work GREAT in RS on blessed tower spots, is virtually useless in tournament situations. Instead, if you brought Smoulder, especially with his R4 anti-flier slow-down talent, then you have a *much* better defense & offense against fliers, even though Smoulder seems to offer FAR less "generic" power than Leif - but even thoug it is "less", it is "more" appropriate to the *situation* - see? So for a level lacking fliers entirely, Leif would be better, although for a sitaution where fliers are the ones ending your tournament play, Smoulder can be a huge boon.
Also, sometimes situational utility can (nearly or even completely) win out over generic or blessed heroes! An example is where on Sethos or Leif's blessed week, a team of strong anti-flier utility can relatively easily get scores as good as or better than a team including the blessed hero at R6 (though skill also plays a role of course). Lancelot prior to his R5 is also replaceable, and Masamune even at his R6 is *somewhat* so (if it's not a binary yes/no, but rather a continuum, where his R6 provides *one* route to win, but a strong anti-air team is *another* way, which even though offers less power, and so can't win a GM, is offered at much greater efficiency and may let you get high rewards or even promoted with from Masters League).
-) anti-fliers: Raida, Smoulder, Connie are enough to get you started, then later you'll want to add Helios & Azura. Each offers something different - like Smoulder slows them down, Raida stuns them, Connie does both, Azura can charm up to 4 (good for when there are more rare but tanky ones like W3 crows), and others can be good too like Efrigid also slows them, Narlax pulls them back, etc. The Narlax+Raida pull+charge/stun combo is ESPECIALLY powerful (read more at https://realm-defense-hero-legends-td.fandom.com/wiki/Tournament_Detailed_Strategy#Narlax_.2B_CC_combo). Note that while Fee is tremendous for fliers in campaign, she can't really keep up in this mode, except when she's blessed.
-) bosses: Koi & even Raida (& Leif if you got him for other reasons) can tank fairly well at first. Connie's bunny mamma does even better, and her little bunnies help slow it down. Narlax at his R6 can pull them back. Later, you'll want Azura who can help charm an enemy to use as a tank against the boss, and then there is Caldera who is immune to all physical damage, but extremely vulnerable to magic. Although the latter two are rarely blessed themselves, and often aren't as worth bringing as the blessed hero. If you are just getting started, Fee (at any rank) may actually work surprisingly well, as her wolves can delay a boss somewhat as it pauses to kill them.
-) delay: Connie, Raida to stun, Narlax to pull back, Efrigid to slow/freeze; or for just a few enemies that get past a checkpoint, Yan to teleport, or Mabyn for fear.
-) worlds: Mabyn works REALLY well for W3, to send enemies back whereupon the archer-bots can regain control of the situation after being broken through. Azura works really well for W4 since she is immune to the slow effect, can heal to help counteract all the ranged damage being thrown at you, and can charm strong enemies - like an armored tank to use against a boss, or a strong flier to use against other strong or weak ones, etc. Caldera isn't good in W3 (poison) or W4 (magic), but is very effective in W1,2,&5.
-) synergies: these can be stronger than anything else (yes even than Koi - in fact this is the ONLY reason why you might not want to use Koi if you have him) - basically you either have the synergy partners or you lose that week (except *maybe* in Gold?). Efri & Bolton need both Yan & Koi's R6, Bolton & Obsidian need each other, Fee needs at least 1-2 of her synergy partners, and Smoulder needs his R6 + Narlax to in. Read the wiki for more comprehensive details. Note that every one of Leif's synergies is absolutely useless and *never* worth bringing him along, unless you are a more junior player and lack anything better to do (hint: it might help once or twice, but it's REALLY not worth getting those 80 tokens and spending 800 gems to get his R6 - that should be one of it not literally THE last thing you do in the game; unless the devs change that soon? I personally would LOVE to see that!:-).
-) special mention 1: Yan hastes Koi, and is thus used more often than any other hero, after Koi himself. She can do this at her R5 though - no need to get her R6 until you are ready to take advantage of her 2 synergies.
-) special mention 2: Raida's extremely high generic utility (2nd only to Koi), AND his high situational utility (for fliers, stunning & damaging bosses, large CC, etc.) makes him the top #1 all-around utility / situational hero...though only providing a very "average" level whenever you lack some other hero who can provide a higher MAXIMUM power. When you have literally every other hero in the game, and to their R6, then you may never use Raida again (though even that's not quite true - players often use him in their first try at a level, to be ready for anything, even though he is always replaced with someone better to get the final maximum score), but until you invest that deeply (which will take YEARS of your life), Raida can provide a great deal of help. *Especially* on the days where you lack the blessed hero, though that is more of a generic functionality, and yet also when you lack the top situational hero for that week (Azura?). Use him as a stepping-stone.
blessed heroes: there is no getting around the fact that you need the blessed heroes to have the best chance to win on a given week. Especially by Masters League, though of course they still help a LOT to win more often in Gold, Platinum, and Diamond. Until then, strong generic+situational utility can help fill in - some heroes are more replaceable than others as mentioned above - but after you get the Meta (Koi, Raida, Connie, Yan, Narlax), then you need to decide whether to prioritize more situational heroes, or more blessed heroes. Both ways work, and you probably want to split your efforts b/t the two. Often heroes work for both: e.g. Narlax is blessed every season, usually fairly late, and then last season (11) was also used another 4 times. In contrast, heroes like Fee, Lancelot, and Masamune are only ever used once, on their blessed week. But still, you only need 4 wins to get to Legendary, and especially if you already had these heroes at a high rank to help you unlock worlds in campaign, they can be a GREAT way to win, certainly much easier than trying to win with purely generic+situational utility that doesn't match what is needed on a given hero's blessed week. One tip: pick a hero that you like to work with, and get them to R6 - you'll likely do better with them than you would with some other hero that you don't enjoy as much.
j) R7 heroes and future predictions: many people, myself included, think that R7 will mostly be necessary for winning GMs. Thus, R6 becomes another ideal/pausing rank, though this one useful to win Masters League with. Many people want to know whether they "should" get an additional hero to R6, or focus that time instead to continue on to R7, though again this is up to your personal preference - do you want to win more often, though possibly not at the #1 spot and maybe not get promoted but do get rewards, so aiming for a higher "average" utility, or do you want to take a risk for a chance to get a GM, and aim for "maximum" utility instead (at the cost of being farther behind in terms of having fewer heroes to use whenever they are blessed)? It's a GAME, so go for what YOU want!:-)
TLDR: use ideal/pausing ranks for heroes blessed earlier in the season, and instead put your highest investments into heroes blessed later, where you'll need their power the most.

# MAME 0.219

MAME 0.219 arrives today, just in time for the end of February! This month we’ve got another piece of Nintendo Game & Watch history – Pinball – as well as a quite a few TV games, including Dream Life Superstar, Designer’s World, Jenna Jameson’s Strip Poker, and Champiyon Pinball. The previously-added Care Bears and Piglet’s Special Day TV games are now working, as well as the big-endian version of the MIPS Magnum R4000. As always, the TV games vary enormously in quality, from enjoyable titles, to low-effort games based on licensed intellectual properties, to horrible bootlegs using blatantly copied assets. If music/rhythm misery is your thing, there’s even a particularly bad dance mat game in there.
On the arcade side, there are fixes for a minor but long-standing graphical issue in Capcom’s genre-defining 1942, and also a fairly significant graphical regression in Seibu Kaihatsu’s Raiden Fighters. Speaking of Seibu Kaihatsu, our very own Angelo Salese significantly improved the experience in Good E-Jan, and speaking of graphics fixes, cam900 fixed some corner cases in Data East’s innovative, but little-known, shoot-’em-up Boogie Wings. Software list additions include the Commodore 64 INPUT 64 collection (courtesy of FakeShemp) and the Spanish ZX Spectrum Load’N’Run collection (added by ICEknight). New preliminary CPU cores and disassemblers include IBM ROMP, the NEC 78K family, Samsung KS0164 and SSD Corp’s Xavix 2.
As always, you can get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page.

## MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

• 06790: [Graphics] (surpratk.cpp) suratk: Missing star field rotation effect in final level. (MetalliC)
• 07079: [Gameplay] (suna8.cpp) sparkman, sparkmana: Player 2 button inputs are not read correctly. (dink)
• 07428: [Media Support] (vsmileb.cpp) vsmileb: Unable to load media. (Ivan Vangelista)
• 07557: [DIP/Input] (karnov.cpp) wndrplnt: Coin inputs no longer work. (MetalliC)
• 07562: [Graphics] (seibuspi.cpp) rdft: Line scroll effects have regressed. (MetalliC)

## New working machines

• Advance Bright Ltd / V-Tac Technology Co Ltd. Decathlon [Sean Riddle, ClawGrip]
• Bandai / SSD Company LTD Mahou Taiketsu Magiranger - Magimat de Dance & Battle (Japan) [Sean Riddle, Peter Wilhelmsen, David Haywood, ShouTime]
• Conny / VideoJet Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles - Pocket Dream Console (France) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Consumenta Computer / Loproc Conchess (standard) [hap, Berger]
• Game & Watch: Pinball [algestam, Ryan Holtz]
• Hasbro / Tiger Electronics Dream Life Superstar (Version 0.3, Mar 16 2007) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• Hasbro / Tiger Electronics Mission: Paintball Powered Up [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Hasbro / Tiger Electronics Star Wars - The Clone Wars [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Hasbro Designer's World (Version 1.0, Dec 20 2005) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto 1X [Berger, blitzchess.fr]
• HP 86B [F.Ulivi]
• Merry Circus (Version 1.0.2) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• MGT 20-in-1 TV-Spielekonsole (Germany) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Mortal Kombat (JAKKS Pacific TV Game) [Sean Riddle]
• Performance Designed Products / Disney / Jungle Soft Disney Game It! Classic Pals [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Plug & Play Game Controller with 200 Games (Supreme 200) [TeamEurope]
• Retro Dance Mat (110 song Super StepMania + 9-in-1 games) (PAL) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Senario / V-Tac Technology Co Ltd. My Sports Challenge (5-in-1 version) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• Senario / V-Tac Technology Co Ltd. My Sports Challenge (6-in-1 version, QVC license) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• Senario / V-Tac Technology Co Ltd. My Sports Challenge Plus / Wireless Sports Plus [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Senario Guitar Super Star (Fender Stratocaster style) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Shiggles Inc. Club Jenna Presents: Jenna Jameson's Strip Poker [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• Sports Trivia Professional Edition (Senario, Plug and Play) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• TaiKee Interactive TV Games 49-in-1 (PAL) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Tech2Go / WayForward Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Mutant and Monster Mayhem [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Tomy / SSD Company LTD Champiyon Pinball (Japan) [Sean Riddle, Peter Wilhelmsen, ShouTime, David Haywood]

## New working clones

• Albert Computers, Inc. Albert [rfka01]
• ASEM S.p.A. AM100 [rfka01]
• Ataque Androide - Moon Cresta (FAR S.A. Spanish bootleg) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Battle Balls (Portugal) [Apocalypse]
• Blood Bros. (Korea) [Jorge Silva]
• Dharma Doujou (Germany) [Darksoft]
• Double Wings (Asia) [Asayuki, pacman70]
• The End (SegaSA / Sonic) [jordigahan, ClawGrip]
• El Estivador (Spanish bootleg of Port Man on Galaxian hardware) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Final Star Force (World?) [Jorge Silva]
• Galaktron (Petaco S.A.) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Galaxian (Spanish bootleg) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• GTAC Do-Do [R. Belmont, rfka01]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Academy (German, 04-10-88) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Academy (German, 06-03-89) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Berlin 68000 (v0.02) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Blitz- und Problemloesungs-Modul (set 2) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Genius 68030 (v4.00) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto II (set 2) [Berger]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM II (set 2, v4.00 2 EPROMs) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM II (set 3, v3.00) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM II (set 4) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM II (set 5) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM IV (v6.00) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM IV (v7.00) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto MM V (set 2) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Mega IV (set 2) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Milano (v1.01) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Modena (set 2) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Modena (set 3) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Monte Carlo (ver. MC2) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Polgar 10 MHz (v10.1) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Portorose 32 Bit (v1.01) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Rebell 5,0 (set 2) [hap]
• Hegener + Glaser Mephisto Super Mondial (ver. AB) [hap]
• The Lord of King (bootleg) [hammy, caius]
• Master Boy (1987, Z80 hardware, Ichi-Funtel) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Mr. Do! (Fabremar bootleg) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• New Fruit Bonus '96 Special Edition (v3.60, DK PCB) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• New Fruit Bonus '96 Special Edition (v3.61, DK PCB) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• New Fruit Bonus '96 Special Edition (v3.61a, C1 PCB) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• New Fruit Bonus '96 Special Edition (v3.61a, DK PCB) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• Olivmandingo (Spanish bootleg of Mandinga on Galaxian hardware) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• P-47 Aces (ver 1.1) [Derick2K, rtw, trap15]
• Pang (bootleg, set 7) [jordigahan, Pikolo, ClawGrip]
• Puzzle & Action: Tant-R (Japan) (bootleg set 4) [jordigahan]
• Puzzli (revision A) [SpinalFeyd]
• Raiden II (easier, US, prototype? 11-16) [neSneSgB]
• Rampart (Joystick, smaller ROMs) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Ribbit! (Japan) [Apocalypse]
• Saitek / Tasc Kasparov RISC 2500 (v1.03) [hap]
• Seicross (set 2) [Zab, The Dumping Union]
• Sirio II (Calfesa S.L. Spanish Moon Cresta bootleg, set 2) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Space Pilot (set 2) [chaneman]
• Street Fighter II: The World Warrior (USA 920312) [Lions3]
• SWTPC swtpc S/09 OS9 [68bit]
• Tasc ChessSystem R30 (Gideon 2.1, prototype) [hap]
• Tasc ChessSystem R30 (The King 2.20) [hap]
• Tasc ChessSystem R30 (The King 2.23, unreleased) [hap]
• Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (US 4 Players, version N) [coolmod, The Dumping Union]
• Three Ds - Three Dealers Casino House (set 2) [Patrik Styrnell]
• Time Killers (v1.00) [Brian Troha, The Dumping Union]
• Triumph-Adler Alphatronic P50 [rfka01, Carl]
• Viper Phase 1 (New Version, Portugal) [Jorge Silva]

## Machines promoted to working

• Care Bears TV Games (JAKKS Pacific TV Game, Game-Key Ready) [Ryan Holtz]
• Gimix 6809 System [68bit]
• MIPS Magnum R4000 (be) [Patrick Mackinlay]
• Simba / V-Tac Technology Co Ltd. TV Sports 10-in-1 / Decathlon Athletic Sport Games [David Haywood]
• Winnie the Pooh - Piglet's Special Day (JAKKS Pacific TV Game, Game-Key Ready) [Ryan Holtz, Sean Riddle, David Haywood]

## Clones promoted to working

• Witch Card (ICP-1) [Ivan Vangelista]

## New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

• 3 Cards Poker 96 (V1.6) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• Advance Bright Ltd Guitar Fever (2007.07.03 Ver 2.7) [TeamEurope, Peter Wilhelmsen, David Haywood]
• Advance Bright Ltd. Wikid Joystick [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Alcatel / Telefonica TeleTUP [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Alcatel / Telefonica TRMA VIA [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Ampex 230 plus Terminal (v4.0) [Bitsavers]
• Applied Microelectronics Institute/The Weather Channel WeatherSTAR 4000 [R. Belmont, Techknight]
• Atari Flashback Mini 7800 [Sean Riddle, GameHistory.org]
• AtGames / Sega Reactor MD (PAL) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Bandai Multi Game Player Gamepad [Sean Riddle, GameHistory.org]
• Basic Fun The Oregon Trail [anonymous]
• Big Buck Hunter Safari (JAKKS Pacific TV Game) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Cadaco Buzztime Home Trivia System [Sean Riddle]
• Casio ROM Pack Software List holder [David Haywood, ClawGrip]
• Cefa Toys Super Quique / Mega Duck (Spain) [Sean Riddle, ClawGrip]
• City Patrolman [unknown]
• CompuData Tulip System I [rfka01, nIGHTFALL crew, Dirk Best]
• Digital Pocket Hand Held System Model: 8630 - 230-in-1 [Peter Wilhelmsen, David Haywood]
• dreamGEAR My Arcade Retro Arcade Machine - 300 Handheld Video Games (DGUN-2593) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Duck Commander (JAKKS Pacific TV Game) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Epoch / SSD Company LTD Excite Sports Tennis x Fitness (Japan) [Sean Riddle, Peter Wilhelmsen, ShouTime]
• Formula 1 [PinMAME]
• Gegege no Kitaro Yokai Yokocho Matsuri De Batoru Ja (GYM1 Ver.A) [Porchy, SpinalFeyd]
• Ice Mania [PinMAME]
• Imaginarium / ItsMagical Karao Kids Songs 2 (Spain) [Sean Riddle, ClawGrip]
• JAKKS Pacific Inc / Code Mystics TV Touch Games: Spider-Man in Villain Round-Up [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• JAKKS Pacific Inc / Code Mystics TV Touch Games: Star Wars Original Trilogy [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• JAKKS Pacific Inc DreamWorks Dragons Hero Portal [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Keroro Gunso Chikyu Shinryaku Shirei Dearimasu! (KRG1 Ver.A) [Porchy, SpinalFeyd]
• Konami Endeavour BIOS [R. Belmont]
• Lexibook Compact Cyber Arcade - Disney Princess [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Lexibook Retro TV Game Console - 300 Games [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• MGT Fitness Konsole (NC1470) [TeamEurope]
• Mini Arcade Machine (Red5) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Orb Retro Arcade Game Controller 153-in-1 [Peter Wilhelmsen, David Haywood]
• Rapid Fire 5 (Konami Endeavour, NSW) [Heihachi_73]
• Roland D-50 Linear Synthesizer (Ver. 2.xx) [DBWBP, depblue]
• Senario Guitar Star [Sean Riddle, David Haywood, Ryan Holtz]
• Star Wars Clone Trooper (JAKKS Pacific TV Game) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• STM Electronics Pied Piper Communicator 1 [Adrian Graham]
• Super Roller (v7.0) [hammy]
• Super Shanghai 2001 [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• Symbol PDT 3100 (v1.10-00) [ArcadeHacker, ClawGrip]
• Tomy / SSD Company LTD Nihon Isshuu - Boku wa Plarail Untenshi (Japan) [Sean Riddle, Peter Wilhelmsen, David Haywood, ShouTime]
• Toy Story - Toys on the Move (JAKKS Pacific TV Motion Game) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• Triumph-Adler alphatronic PC-16 [Carl, rfka01]
• VTech MobiGo [Sean Riddle, ClawGrip]
• VTech MobiGo 2 (Germany) [TeamEurope]
• Waixing Megapad 31-in-1 [Sean Riddle, GameHistory.org]
• The Walking Dead: Battleground (JAKKS Pacific TV Game) [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• The Walking Dead: Zombie Hunter (JAKKS Pacific TV Game) [Sean Riddle]
• WinFun / KidConnection SmarTV Adventures [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]

## New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

• 3 Cards Poker 96 (V1.0) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• Cherry Angel (set 2) [Ioannis Bampoulas]
• Club Kart: European Session (2003, prototype, set 2) [coolmod, MetalliC]
• Ferrari F355 Challenge (private show version) [coolmod]
• Roland D-50 Linear Synthesizer (Ver. 1.xx) [DBWBP]
• Roland D-550 Linear Synthesizer [DBWBP]
• Sanyo MBC-16LT [rfka01]
• Sirio II (Calfesa S.L. Spanish Moon Cresta bootleg, set 1) [Juan Romero, ClawGrip]
• Time Crisis 4 (Japan, TSF1001-NA-A) [Guru]
• Victor V286C [rfka01]

## New working software list additions

• altos8600: Altos Diagnostic Executive [Robbbert]
• apple2_flop_clcracked: Algebra Volume 6 (Version 1.0) (cleanly cracked), Alkemstone (cleanly cracked), Building Perspective (cleanly cracked), The Dragon's Eye (cleanly cracked), Fraktured Faebles (cleanly cracked), Generic Computer Games (cleanly cracked), Gruds in Space (cleanly cracked), Other-Venture #3: The Escape from Traam (cleanly cracked), Pick The Part (cleanly cracked), Ulysses and the Golden Fleece (Version 1.1) (cleanly cracked), World Atlas Action: Geography Facts (cleanly cracked) [4am, Firehawke]
• apple2_flop_orig: 221B Baker Street (Version 1.1), Adventure Programming Kit (Versoin 10.84), Alter Ego (female version), Alter Ego (male version), The Dallas Quest, The Dragon's Eye, Expedition Amazon, Garfield Trivia Game, Generic Computer Games, Legacy of the Ancients, Manhunter: New York (Version 1.0I), MasterType (Version 2.1), Micro Cookbook (Version 3.00), Miner 2049er II, Ming's Challenge, The Serpent's Star (Version 1.0), Spectrum: Programs and Patterns, Summer Games II, Time Zone (Version 1.1), The Tracer Sanction, Transylvania (1985 Version), Treasure Island, Tumble Bugs [4am, Firehawke]
• applix: Boot disk [Robbbert]
• aussiebyte: Boot disk [Robbbert]
• buzztime_cart: Series 1 - Everything Trivia, Series 1 - History Trivia, Series 1 - Sports Trivia, Series 1 - TV Trivia [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• c64_cass:
• The CF Power Pack Tape 6, The CF Power Pack Tape 9, Dan Dare - Pilot of the Future, Excaliba, Postman Pat 2, Saracen [FakeShemp]
• INPUT 64 1/85, INPUT 64 1/86, INPUT 64 1/87, INPUT 64 10/86, INPUT 64 11/85, INPUT 64 11/86, INPUT 64 12/85, INPUT 64 12/86, INPUT 64 2/85, INPUT 64 2/86, INPUT 64 2/87, INPUT 64 3/85, INPUT 64 3/86, INPUT 64 3/87, INPUT 64 4/85, INPUT 64 4/86, INPUT 64 4/87, INPUT 64 5/85, INPUT 64 5/86, INPUT 64 5/87, INPUT 64 6/85, INPUT 64 6/86, INPUT 64 6/87, INPUT 64 7/85, INPUT 64 7/86, INPUT 64 7/87, INPUT 64 8/85, INPUT 64 8/86, INPUT 64 8/87, INPUT 64 9/85, INPUT 64 9/86 [pagetable, FakeShemp]
• c64_flop_orig: INPUT 64 1/87, INPUT 64 1/88, INPUT 64 10/86, INPUT 64 10/87, INPUT 64 10/88, INPUT 64 11/86, INPUT 64 11/87, INPUT 64 11/88, INPUT 64 12/86, INPUT 64 12/87, INPUT 64 12/88, INPUT 64 2/87, INPUT 64 2/88, INPUT 64 3/87, INPUT 64 3/88, INPUT 64 4/87, INPUT 64 4/88, INPUT 64 5/87, INPUT 64 5/88, INPUT 64 6/87, INPUT 64 6/88, INPUT 64 7/87, INPUT 64 7/88, INPUT 64 8/87, INPUT 64 8/88, INPUT 64 9/87, INPUT 64 9/88 [pagetable, FakeShemp]
• fmtowns_cd: Cyber Sculpt V1.0 (HMC-140A), Mahjong Bishoujoden Ripple, Microcosm (HMD-215), Secre Volume I - Naoko Iijima [redump.org, r09]
• gamegear: Sonic The Hedgehog 2 (World, final prototype 19920925) [drx, FakeShemp]
• hp86_rom: Advanced programming 1 ROM, Advanced programming 2 ROM, Assembler ROM, Extended Mass Storage ROM, I/O ROM, Language ROM, Matrix 1 ROM, Matrix 2 ROM, MIKSAM ROM, Printeplotter ROM [F.Ulivi]
• ibm5150:
• Domino 1.0 [FakeShemp]
• ibm5170:
• Cannon Fodder 2, Epic Pinball (shareware version - Mr. Disk release), Epic Pinball: Crash and Burn, Epic Pinball: Cyborgirl, Epic Pinball: Enigma [ArcadeShadow]
• Tågplusguiden - Vinter–Våren 1998 [FakeShemp]
• jakks_gamekey_nm: Pac-Man & Bosconian (01 APR 2005 A SKU G) [Sean Riddle, Ryan Holtz, David Haywood]
• jazz: Windows NT Workstation Version 3.5, Windows NT Workstation Version 3.51, Windows NT Workstation Version 4.0 Service Pack 1 [Patrick Mackinlay]
• lynx: Weltenschlächter [anonymous]
• megadriv: Sonic the Hedgehog 2 (World, final prototype 19921102), Sonic the Hedgehog 3 (World, prototype 19931103) [drx, FakeShemp]
• nes: English Pyramid (Pirate) [Gaming Alexandria]
• odyssey2:
• Death Race (Euro) [anonymous]
• Death Race (USA) [SSJ, TeamEurope]
• sbrain: Boot disk [Robbbert]
• sdk85: Mastermind [AJR]
• spectrum_cass:
• uzebox: Final Blood, Frog Feast, Laser Puzzle, Laser Puzzle II, Melli's RetroLand, Reels of Fortune, Uzebox Tactics, Uzi Wars [uzebox.org]

## Software list items promoted to working

• fmtowns_cd:
• King's Quest V - Absence Makes the Heart Go Yonder, Kyuukyoku Tiger, Mixed-Up Mother Goose, Panzer Division - Kikou Shidan, Taito Chase H.Q. (Demo), The Case of the Cautious Condor [Barry Rodewald, Carl, r09]
• Life & Death [redump.org, Barry Rodewald, Carl, r09]
• pc98: Mahjong Gokuu Tenjiku, Mahjong Taikai [Angelo Salese]

## New NOT_WORKING software list additions

• casio_rompack:
• How to Play your Casio ROM Keyboard (RO-251) [Sean Riddle, avlixa, ClawGrip]
• World Songs (RO-551) [Sean Riddle]
• fmtowns_cd: Doki Doki Vacation - Kirameku Kisetsu no Naka de, Para Para Paradise [redump.org, r09]
• ique: Dòngwù Sēnlín (version 8), F-Zero X Wèilái Sàichē (manual, version 2), F-Zero X Wèilái Sàichē (manual, version 4), F-Zero X Wèilái Sàichē (trailer), F-Zero X Wèilái Sàichē (version 3), iQue Club (version 1), iQue Club (version 2), iQue Club (version 3), Mǎlìōu Kǎdīngchē (manual, version 2), Mǎlìōu Kǎdīngchē (manual, version 6), Mǎlìōu Kǎdīngchē (trailer), Mǎlìōu Kǎdīngchē (version 4), Mǎlìōu Kǎdīngchē (version 5), Mǎlìōu Yīshēng (manual, version 2), Mǎlìōu Yīshēng (manual, version 4), Mǎlìōu Yīshēng (trailer), Mǎlìōu Yīshēng (version 4), Rèntiāntáng Míngxīng Dà Luàn Dǒu (manual, version 1), Rèntiāntáng Míngxīng Dà Luàn Dǒu (version 5), Shuǐ Shàng Mótuō (manual, version 2), Shuǐ Shàng Mótuō (manual, version 4), Shuǐ Shàng Mótuō (trailer, version 1), Shuǐ Shàng Mótuō (trailer, version 2), Shuǐ Shàng Mótuō (version 4), Shén Yóu Mǎlìōu (manual, version 2), Shén Yóu Mǎlìōu (manual, version 6), Shén Yóu Mǎlìōu (trailer, version 1), Shén Yóu Mǎlìōu (trailer, version 2), Shén Yóu Mǎlìōu (version 4), Sàiěrdá Chuánshuō: Shíguāng zhī Dí (manual, version 2), Sàiěrdá Chuánshuō: Shíguāng zhī Dí (manual, version 4), Sàiěrdá Chuánshuō: Shíguāng zhī Dí (trailer), Sàiěrdá Chuánshuō: Shíguāng zhī Dí (version 1), Sàiěrdá Chuánshuō: Shíguāng zhī Dí (version 4) [FakeShemp]
• leapster: The Disney-Pixar Collection (USA), Letterpillar (v1.0, USA) [TeamEurope]
• mobigo_cart:
• Ben 10 - UltimateAlien - Mine der Gedanken (Germany) (80-250604), Cars 2 (Germany) (80-251904), Chuggington (Germany) (80-251804), Cars Toon - Hooks unglaubliche Geschichten (Germany) (80-251204), Disney Princess (Germany) (80-251104), Dora - Tag des Zwillings (Germany) (80-250804), Für immer Shrek (Germany) (80-250004), Kung Fu Panda 2 (Germany) (80-252004), Micky Maus - Wunderhaus (Germany) (80-250504), Mobigo Kiosk (Germany), Die Pinguine aus Madagascar - Operation Krone (Germany) (80-250304), Rapunzel - Neu Verföhnt (Germany) (80-251704), Team Umizoomi - Die große Umiauto Rettung (Germany) (80-252504), Toy Story 3 (Germany) (80-250104) [TeamEurope]
• Mickey Mouse, Tangled, Toy Story 3 [Sean Riddle]
• n64: Aidyn Chronicles - The First Mage (USA, prototype 20000210), Aidyn Chronicles - The First Mage (USA, prototype 20000509), Cruis'n World (Europe), Die Hard 64 (prototype 20000315, set 1), Die Hard 64 (prototype 20000315, set 2), Die Hard 64 (prototype 20000315, set 3), Dragon Sword (prototype), Duke Nukem - Zero Hour (USA, final prototype), ECW Hardcore Revolution (Germany), Frogger 2 (USA, prototype, "Milestone 4"), GT64 - Championship Edition (prototype 19980525), International Superstar Soccer 2000 (USA, rev 1), Madden NFL 99 (USA, prototype 19980805, "Beta 10 NTSC"), Madden NFL 99 (USA, rev 1), Mario Kart 64 (USA, set 2), Mission: Impossible (Spain, rev 1), Mortal Kombat Trilogy (prototype 19960513), NBA Hangtime (USA, set 2), Robotech: Crystal Dreams (USA, prototype, earlier), SpaceStation Silicon Valley (USA, rev 1), Top Gear Hyper-Bike (prototype), Top Gear Rally (Asia), Top Gear Rally 2 (prototype 19990831), Turok 3 - Shadow of Oblivion (Europe, prototype 20000606), Wipeout 64 (prototype) [FakeShemp]
• Scooby Doo - Miniature Golf Mystery / Museum Mystery / Haunted Theater [Porchy]
• Barney: Barney Cares / Best Manners Show / Let's Work Together, Blue's Perfect Picnic Spot, Disney No Rumbly In Pooh's Tumbly, Disney Pooh Windy Day, Disney Princess: Jasmine / Mulan / Pocahontas, Disney Princess: The Little Mermaid / Snow White / Beauty and the Beast, Disney's Bambi / Lady and the Tramp / Peter Pan, Disney's Pinocchio / Disney/Pixar Toy Story 2 / The Jungle Book, Disney's The Lion King, Disney's The Little Mermaid, Disney/Pixar Cars / The Incredibles / Monsters Inc., Disney/Pixar Finding Nemo, Dora the Explorer: Dora's Garden Adventure / The Gingerbread Boy / Dora's Art Adventure, Dora's Garden Adventure, Noah's Ark, Petter Rabbit / Jemima Puddle-Duck / Tom Kitten, Scooby-Doo! Miniature Golf Mistery, Sesame Street: Elmo's Colorful Adventure / Grover Stays Up Very Very Late / Me Loves Cookies, Spongebob Squarepants Grand Price Winner!, Spongebob Squarepants Grand Price Winner! / Dora's Garden Adventure / Blue's Perfect Picnic Spot, Thomas & Friends: Cheer up Cranky! / The Big Race / Carnival Capers [Sean Riddle, ClawGrip] Cars (Germany), Das Dschungelbuch (Germany), Findet Nemo (Germany), Der König der Löwen (Germany), Peter Pan (Germany), Winnie Puuh - Ein stürmischer Tag (Germany), Winnie Puuh hat keinen Hunger (Germany) [TeamEurope]
• sdk85: AP-29 Serial I/O Routines [AJR]
• smarttv_cart: Amusement Park [Sean Riddle, David Haywood]
• telestory_cart:
• Dora the Explorer - En la feria ambulante / Dora va a la escuela (Spanish), Power Rangers Mystic Force - Code Busters / Whispering Voices (UK / USA?) [TeamEurope, David Haywood]
• Cinderella - Cinderella / Beauties in Bloom (USA), Dora the Explorer - At the Carnival / Dora Goes to School (USA), The Lion King - The Lion King / The Lion King II - Simba's Pride (USA), SpongeBob SquarePants - Ice-Cream Dreams / Stop the Presses! (USA), Winnie the Pooh - Bounce Tigger Bounce / Pooh's Honey Tree (USA) [Sean Riddle, TeamEurope]
• Thomas & Friends - Thomas Visits the Toy Shop / Thomas' Milkshake Mix [Sean Riddle, ClawGrip]

## Source Changes

• formats/wd177x_dsk.cpp: Allowed derived classes to override the format per track/head. [68bit]
• formats/flex_dsk.cpp: Simplified code, and added support for variants with single-density initial tracks. [68bit]
• formats/os9_dsk.cpp: Added support for variants with single-density initial track and base sector zero. [68bit]
• floptool: Added OS9 disk format. [68bit]
• bus/ss50: Added MFI, OS9 and UniFLEX formats to DC5 floppy drive controller. [68bit]
• Connected interrupts, removed timed interrupt hack, and added two additional floppy drivers.
• Added disassembly override for OS9 system calls.
• Added OS9 Level 1 version 1.2 BIOS option.
• tti.cpp: Made the two firmware revisions BIOS options. [AJR]
• sdk85.cpp improvements: [AJR]
• Made second 8355 into a ROM expansion slot that can load custom 8755 programs.
• Added vectored interrupt and soft reset buttons.
• Improved accuracy of button labels and changed default key mappings.
• jaguar: Eliminated unsafe raw memory pointer use from blitter (fixes several exceptions, including tempst2k). [AJR]
• i8155.cpp: Made timer more efficient by not counting each cycle. [AJR]
• bus/a2bus: Added 8251-based RS-232 serial interface described in BYTE magazine. [AJR]
• Added disassemblers for NEC 78K/0, 78K/I, 78K/II and 78K/III microcontrollers. [AJR]
• naomi.cpp: Made “Gun Sense” board used by hotd2 a separate device. [AJR]
• Predicate command completion interrupt on busy flag having been set.
• Increased HLD idle timeout to fifteen revolutions for variants other than FD1771 and FD1781.
• Removed timing hack, ensuring SL3 is output (required by Pied Piper Communicator 1).
• Corrected keyboard scan rate and logging thereof.
• Corrected OKI M6295 pin 7 level to high (fixes voice pitches).
• Converted to raw screen timing parameters.
• toki.cpp: Converted screen refresh rate to raw timing parameters. [Angelo Salese]
• ddenlovr.cpp: Added coin counters and corrected metadata for all games. [Angelo Salese]
• subsino2.cpp: Fixed missing ron button. [Angelo Salese]
• Synchronized with upstream GENie (addresses GitHub #6248). [Belegdol]
• Converted to use single-pass priority drawing for sprites.
• Fixed I/O writes for systems without NB1414M4.
• twin16.cpp: Restrict sprite drawing to clipping rectangle. [cam900]
• sound/vrc6.cpp, sound/ym2413.cpp: Changed descriptions to match chip markings/part numbers. [cam900]
• Added support for MSM5205 10-bit DAC.
• Derive timing and sample rate from input clock
• Updated notes.
• video/stvvdp1.cpp: Fixed Gouraud shading flag test. [cam900]
• vgmplay.cpp: Fixed YMF262 register mapping and YMF278B volume. [cam900]
• sound/ymf262.cpp: Added support for variants with different clock dividers. [cam900]
• sound/ymf278b.cpp: Fixed FM output rate and clock divider, fixed mixing behavior, and expanded notes. [cam900]
• sound/ymf271.cpp: Corrected envelope release time. [cam900]
• bus/isa/gus.cpp: Calculate GF1 sample rate from input clock. [cam900]
• ics2115.cpp: Calculate sample rate from input clock. [cam900]
• video/deco16ic.cpp: Fixed of-by-one clipping in tilemap drawing. [cam900]
• boogwing.cpp: Improved blending, priority drawing and palette effects. [cam900]
• video/deco_ace.cpp: Use fixed-point palette fade calculation. [cam900]
• gstream.cpp: Implemented per-frame sprite limit. [cam900]
• cpu/z80: Added skeleton LZ8420M device (Z80 with internal RAM and additional I/O). [cam900]
• psikyo.cpp: Derived gunbird clocks from crystal values. [cam900]
• Fixed issue separating nets into independent groups for four-terminal devices without external feedback loops.
• Added current-controlled voltage source (CCVS).
• Improved SPICE format conversion – official TI µA741 model can now be converted without errors.
• Added support for evaluating expressions in parameters when netlist is created.
• Added support for potentiometers to SPICE format conversion.
• sound/mm5837.cpp: Measured frequency versus supply voltage. [Couriersud]
• cpu/ks0164: Added preliminary Samsung KS0164 disassembler. [David Carne, O. Galibert]
• machine/spg2xx_video.cpp: Removed row scroll offset hack. [David Haywood]
• Problematic cases where different games in multi-game systems required different values are fixed.
• nes_vt.cpp: Untangled from NES state class and NES controller bus. [David Haywood]
• cpu/spc700: Fixed TCLR1 and TSET1 operations, and removed page-crossing penalty on Y-relative accesses. [David Viens]
• mjsister.cpp, xyonics.cpp: Hooked up 6845 CRT controllers and added raw screen timing parameters. [Dirk Best]
• machine/mc6844.cpp: Added preliminary MC6855 DMA controller device, based on implementations in drivers. [Edström]
• machine/mc6854.cpp: Added support for external clocks and DMA mode. [Edström]
• cpu/jaguar: Fixed disassembly of movei instruction (GitHub #6314). [ElectronAsh]
• Changed alternate versions of ChessSystem R30, Kasparov RISC and various Mephisto chess computers from BIOS options to clones. [hap]
• machine/spg2xx_audio.cpp: Added preliminary ADPCM36 decoding – significantly improves pballpup. [Lord Nightmare, Ryan Holtz]
• roland_d50.cpp: Added additional ROM versions to d50, d50a and d550 as BIOS options. [Lord Nightmare, anonymous, Erik Gavriluk]
• Also added chip labels and locations, PCB notes, and version strings.
• video/k052109.cpp Fixed and cleaned up tilemap scroll effects (fixes fuusenpn and MT06790). [MetalliC]
• bus/ti99: Added VRAM size option to Enhanced Video Processor card. [Michael Zapf]
• machine/sunplus_gcm394.cpp: Re-worked some of the DMA and NAND Flash handling so that jak_tsm loads more code. [N. Gilbert]
• cpu/xavix2: Added preliminary Xavix 2 CPU emulation and disassembler. [O. Galibert, N. Gilbert]
• cpu/romp: Added preliminary IBM Research/Office Products Division Microprocessor (ROMP) device. [Patrick Mackinlay]
• konendev.cpp: Hooked up H8/3007 “IFU” CPU. [R. Belmont]
• Added a tip on how to enter the debugger to the online documentation. [R. Belmont]
• cpu/m68000: Allow RTE instruction to unwind 68010 bus error (type 1000) stack frames. [R. Belmont]
• bus/nubus: Fixed macse30 Sigma Designs L-View SE/30 PDS card. [R. Belmont]
• apple2.cpp, apple2e.cpp, apple2gs.cpp: Exposed CFFF accesses to slot cards. [R. Belmont]
• bus/a2bus: Added support for Applesurance floppy drive controller card. [R. Belmont, DiskBlitz]
• video/apple2.cpp: Improved monochrome-mode drawing in lores, hires and double lores modes. [R. Belmont]
• Gives correct NTSC color with -video bgfx, effect hlsl, NTSC on, NTSC A and B to 0, scanline length to 39.1 µS.
• uzebox.cpp: Use filename extension to detect UZE format, as some early games lack the identification string. [Robbbert]
• iris3130.cpp: Modernized logging, added preliminary MMU support, and added ROM board support. [Ryan Holtz]
• machine/6840ptm.cpp: Made logging more configurable. [Ryan Holtz, Phil Bennett]
• machine/i8214.cpp: Improved interrupt level check, and added setters for combined B/SGS and R inputs. [Ryan Holtz, Phil Bennett]
• audio/cmi01a.cpp: Derived PTM clocks from /CAS clock – fixes TIM tests in CMITST diagnostics. [Ryan Holtz]
• Improved interrupt handling – nearly all CMIINT tests pass now.
• Hooked up peripherals and MIDI ports on the SMPTE/MIDI board.
• Mapped handlers for the TVT second display board.
• Adjusted video board PTM clocks to be based on /CAS clock – fixes TIM tests in LGTST diagnostics.
• Adjusted master card PTM clock to be based on /CAS clock – fixes TIM tests in MAST diagnostics.
• Hooked up AIC interrupt – all interrupt tests now pass.
• Fixed off-by-one error on Beat Count timer – fixes timing in icanpian, and in shredmjr to some extent.
• Hooked up channel FIQ.
• Hooked up software wave-in channel (used by jak_care for voices).
• cpu/unsp: Implemented MULS and FIR_MOV operations. [Ryan Holtz, N. Gilbert, smf]
• 1942.cpp: Fixed sprite priorities, implemented sprite line buffering, fixed logo on title screen, and improved interrupt timing. [Ryan Holtz, David Haywood, smf, O. Galibert]
• machine/spg2xx_io.cpp: Added watchdog timer support and rudimentary SPI support. [Ryan Holtz]
• machine/i2cmem.cpp: Added 24C04 device. [Ryan Holtz]
• Split spg2xx_jakks.cpp into separate files for plain, game-key and touch variants. [Ryan Holtz]
• spg2xx_jakks.cpp Hooked up jak_batm I²C EEPROM – enables saving. [Ryan Holtz]
• atarittl.cpp: Fixed various errors in stuntcyc netlist. [Ryan Holtz]
• machine/315-6154.cpp: Converted to real PCI host device, and updated NAOMI DIMM board accordingly. [Samuele Zannoli]
• superga2.cpp: Fixed player 2 inputs for kuzmich. [xotmatrix]
• atarigx2.cpp: Corrected program ROM labels for motofren. [Brian Troha]
• tsamurai.cpp: Corrected ROM labels for the Ring Fighter sets and added PCB locations to them. [Brian Troha]
• snk.cpp: Corrected ROM labels for fitegolfu. [Brian Troha]
• midzeus.cpp: Decapped PIC microcontroller for thegrid. [Caps0ff]
• sdk80.cpp: Replaced monitor program with corrected version (GitHub #6324). [Colin Douglas Howell, Robbbert]
• isbc8010.cpp: Corrected an OCR issue in monitor ROM that prevented M command from working. [Colin Douglas Howell, Robbbert]
• naomi.cpp: Dumped Sega Atomiswave BIOS. [CoolFox, MetalliC]
• model3.cpp: Re-dumped ecap ROMs. [coolmod, MetalliC]
• vsmile_cart.xml: Added some French releases to the list of undumped cartridges. [DisizDream]
• n64.xml: Added a lot more PCB documentation, and replaced bad dumps with re-dumps. [FakeShemp]
• esq5505.cpp: Added PCB layout for SQ-2. [Guru]
• psikyo.cpp: Measured some frequencies for s1945, including horizontal and vertical video sync. [Guru]
• konendev.cpp: Mapped additional inputs, expanded documentation, and cleaned up code. [Heihachi_73]
• bloodbro_ms.cpp: Dumped some of the PROMs and PLDs for bloodbrom. [jordigahan, ClawGrip]
• gameboy.xml, nes.xml, snes.xml: Corrected some metadata and added some parent/clone relationships. [quasiscroto]
• fmtowns_cd.xml: Re-tested software, and updated metadata and notes. [r09]
• fmtowns_cd.xml: Switched to dumps with proper track indexes and offset correction. [redump.org, r09]
• 3x3eyes, 4dboxing, branmark, chasehq, fsc4, fsc5, libido7, lifendth, loom, marble, mcosmo, msdet2, mspectre, nadia, nova, raiden, rance4, srmp23, srmp4, ssf2, tnzs, vaindrem, vaindrm2, yojusenk, yumimimx.
• ssv.cpp: Identified ROM boards for Monster Slider, Super Real Mahjong P7 and Gourmet Battle Quiz Ryorioh CooKing. [twistedsymphony]